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The Volcanoes of
Lewis and Clark
October 1805 to June 1806
Calendar of the Journey
 
Home
The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark

Map of the Journey
Volcanoes, Basalt Plateaus, Major Rivers, etc.

The Volcanoes
Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, Mount Rainier, and Mount St. Helens

CALENDAR of the Journey
October 1805 to June 1806

Along the Journey
Pacific Northwest Maps - Columbia River, Volcanoes, Flood Basalts, Missoula Floods, Geology, etc.

The Corps of Discovery
The Journey of Lewis and Clark

About the Reference Materials
The Journals, Biddle/Allen, DeVoto, Gass, Moulton, Topo Maps, and others

USGS Lewis and Clark Links
Links to USGS Websites highlighting the Lewis and Clark Journey

Resources
Publications Referenced and Websites Visited


October 1805

  • October 5-6, 1805 -- The Journey Begins - Canoe Camp
  • October 7, 1805 -- On the Clearwater - Canoe Camp to Potlatch River
  • October 10, 1805 -- Reaching the Snake - Clearwater Confluence with the Snake River
  • October 11, 1805 -- On the Snake River - Clearwater Confluence to Almota Creek
  • October 12, 1805 -- On the Snake River - Almota Creek to Texas Rapids
  • October 13, 1805 -- On the Snake River - Texas Rapids to Ayers Junction
  • October 14-15, 1805 -- On the Snake River - Ayers Junction to Fish Hook Rapids

    button, click for more information Possible sighting of Mount Adams on October 15, 1805:
    "... Capt Lewis assended the hills & Saw ... a high point to the west. ..."


  • October 16, 1805 -- Reaching the "Great" Columbia River - Snake and Columbia Confluence
  • October 17, 1805 -- Side-Trip Up the Columbia - Tri-Cities and the Yakima River
  • October 18, 1805 -- Down the "Great" Columbia River - Columbia/Snake Confluence to Spring Gulch

    button, click for more information Lewis and Clark have their first view of Mount Hood on October 18, 1805:
    "... Saw a mountain bearing S. W. Conocal form Covered with Snow ..."


  • October 19, 1805 -- Down the "Great" Columbia River - Spring Gulch to Umatilla NWR

    button, click for more information Lewis and Clark comment on Mount Adams (which they call Mount St. Helens), and they observe Mount Hood and refered to it as a "conical mountain":
    "... I assended a high clift about 200 feet above the water; from this place I descovered a high mountain of emence hight covered with Snow, this must be one of the mountains laid down by Vancouver, as seen from the mouth of the Columbia River, from the course which it bears which is 'West' I take it to be Mt. St. Helens, destant about 120 miles a range of mountains in the Derection crossing a conical mountain S. W. toped with snow ..."


  • October 20, 1805 -- Islands and Ridges - Umatilla NWR to Roosevelt and Arlington
  • October 21, 1805 -- Rapids and Rivers - Roosevelt and Arlington to John Day

    button, click for more information Lewis and Clark spot Mount Hood and call it "Timm" or "falls mountain":
    "... from this rapid the Conocil mountain is S. W. which the Indians inform me is not far to the left of the great falls; this I call the 'Timm' or falls mountain it is high and the top is covered with Snow ..."


  • October 22, 1805 -- "Great Falls of the Columbia" - Maryhill to Celilo

    button, click for more information Lewis and Clark make no mention of seeing any peaks along this stretch on October 22, 1805. In 1806 however, on their return through this area (see: April 22, 1806) they comment on ascending to the top of the hill (Washington side) and seeing Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson.


  • October 23, 1805 -- "Great Falls of the Columbia" - The Portage
  • October 24, 1805 -- The Dalles - "Short Narrows"
  • October 25, 1805 -- The Dalles - "Long Narrows", Rock Fort

    button, click for more information Mount Hood is visible from the camp at Rock Fort, The Dalles, Oregon. Clark writes in his journal:
    "... The Pinical of the round toped mountain which we Saw a Short distance below the forks of this river is S. 43o W. of us and abt 37 miles, it is at this time toped with Snow we called this the 'falls mountain' or 'Timm' mountain ..."


  • October 26-28, 1805 -- The Dalles - "Long Narrows", Rock Fort

    button, click for more information Clark comments again on viewing Mount Hood:
    "... a mountain which I must call 'Timm' or 'falls' Mountain rises verry high and bears to the S W the Course it has bore Sinc we first Saw it ..."


  • October 29, 1805 -- Entering the Columbia River Gorge - The Dalles to the Little White Salmon
  • October 30, 1805 -- "Lower Falls of the Columbia" - Dog Mountain to Cascade Locks
  • October 31, 1805 -- "Lower Falls of the Columbia" - Cascade Locks - Preparing to Portage


November 1805

  • November 1, 1805 -- Columbia River Gorge - Cascade Locks to Bonneville - The Portage
  • November 2, 1805 -- Columbia River Gorge - Beacon Rock to Rooster Rock
  • November 3, 1805 -- Columbia River Heading West - Rooster Rock to Columbia River Slough

    button, click for more information Mount Hood is visible along this stretch of the Columbia River. Clark comments on seeing the peak from near the mouth of the Sandy River. For the first time he identifies the peak as "Mount Hood":
    "... A Mountain which we Suppose to be Mt. Hood, is S. 85o E about 47 miles distant from the mouth of quick sand river This mtn. is Covered with Snow and in the range of mountains which we have passed through and is of a Conical form but rugid ..."


  • November 4, 1805 -- Vancouver, Washington - Columbia River Slough to Ridgefield NWR

    button, click for more information Five volcanoes are visible along this reach. To the north (Washington State) are Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Adams. To the south (Oregon) are Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson. On their journey to the Pacific in 1805, Lewis and Clark only make mention of seeing Mount St. Helens:
    "... at 3 miles lower, and 12 Leagues below quick Sand river passed a village of four large houses on The Lard. Side, near which we had a full view of 'Mt. Helien' which is perhaps the highest pinical in America from their base it bears N. 25o. E. about 90 miles -- This is the mountain I Saw from the Muscle Shell rapid on the 19th of October last Covered with Snow, it rises Something in the form of a Sugar lofe ..."
    Note -- Clark was mistaken about which peak he viewed from the "Muscle Shell rapid" (Umatilla Rapids, see October 19, 1805). That peak was actually Mount Adams. Even this viewing of Mount St. Helens was confused at first as Clark calls the peak "Mt. Ranier" in his first draft for November 4, 1805, but corrects that mistake in the second writing. The Gass, Ordway, and Whitehouse journals however, carry on the name "mount Rainy".

    On their return in 1806, Captain Clark writes about viewing all five peaks from this area (see: April 3, 1806).



  • November 5, 1805 -- Heading to the Pacific - Ridgefield NWR to Prescott Beach
  • November 6, 1805 -- Heading to the Pacific - Prescott Beach to Wallace Island
  • November 7, 1805 -- Nearing the Pacific - Wallace Island to Pillar Rock
  • November 8-9, 1805 -- Nearing the Pacific - Pillar Rock to Grays Point
  • November 10-11, 1805 -- Nearing the Pacific - Grays Point to Hungry Harbor
  • November 12-14, 1805 -- Nearing the Pacific - Hungry Harbor to Megler Cove
  • November 15, 1805 -- Reaching the Pacific - Megler Cove to the Pacific Ocean
  • November 16-17, 1805 -- At the Pacific - Station Camp and Cape Disappointment
  • November 18, 1805 -- At the Pacific - Station Camp and Fort Canby
  • November 19-24, 1805 -- At the Pacific - Station Camp, Fort Canby, and Long Beach
  • November 25, 1805 -- Looking for a Place to Winter - Station Camp to Pillar Rock

    button, click for more information Clark writes about seeing Mount St. Helens from the mouth of the Columbia River, although in his first draft he calls the peak "Mount Ranier".
    "... Saw from near of last Campment Mount Ranier ..."
    The "last Campment" was Station Camp, just downstream of Point Ellice, Washington. Clark corrects his mistake in the 2nd draft:
    "... Mt St. Hilians Can be Seen from the mouth of this river ..."
    Mount Adams is also visible from areas near the mouth of the Columbia, although Lewis and Clark did not make mention of this peak.


  • November 26-30, 1805 -- Looking for a Place to Winter - Pillar Rock to Tongue Point


December 1805

  • December 1-6, 1805 -- Looking for a Place to Winter - At Tongue Point
  • December 7-25, 1805 -- A Place to Winter - Tongue Point to Fort Clatsop

    button, click for more information In his first draft for December 7, 1805, Clark corrects his mistake of identifying Mount St. Helens as Mount Rainier.
    "... 'Mt. St. Helens' is the mountain we mistook for 'Mt. Reeaneer' ..."


March 1806

  • March 23-24, 1806 -- Heading Home - Fort Clatsop to Tenasillahe Island
  • March 25-28, 1806 -- Heading Home - Puget Island to Deer Island
  • March 29, 1806 -- Heading Home - Deer Island to Ridgefield NWR
  • March 30, 1806 -- Vancouver, Washington - Ridgefield NWR to Ryan Point

    button, click for more information On March 30, 1806, Lewis and Clark observe Mount Jefferson, and name it after the then current President and their benefactor, Thomas Jefferson.
    "... discovered a high mountain S E. Covered with Snow which we call Mt. Jefferson ..."
    The also wrote about their views of Mount St. Helens and Mount Hood:
    "... we had a view of mount St. helines and Mount Hood. the 1st is the most noble looking object of it's kind in nature. it's figure is a regular cone. both these mountains are perfectly covered with snow; at least the parts of them which are visible. ..."


  • March 31, 1806 -- On the Banks of the Columbia - Point Ryan to Cottonwood Beach Camp

    button, click for more information The expedition has set up camp at Cottonwood Beach, near Washougal, Washington. Clark comments on Mount Hood:
    "... Mount Hood bears East from this place and is distant from this place about 40 miles ..."


April 1806

  • April 1, 1806 -- Gathering Provisions - Cottonwood Beach Camp and the Sandy River

    button, click for more information Mount Hood is mention in relation to the location of the "Quicksand River" (Sandy River, Oregon). The Orway and Whitehouse journals mention the discovery of Mount Jefferson:
    "... we discovred yesterday the top of a high white Mountain some distance to the Southward our officers name it Mount Jefferson ..." [Ordway, April 1, 1806]

    "... we saw a high mountain laying a great distance off to the Southward of us, which appeared to be covered with snow. Our Officers named this Mountain Jefferson Mountain ..." [Whitehouse, April 1, 1806]


  • April 2, 1806 -- Gathering Provisions - Cottonwood Beach Camp and the Willamette River
  • April 3, 1806 -- Five Volcanoes and a Side-Trip Up the Willamette

    button, click for more information Clark left to explore the Willamette River on April 2, 1806. He returned on April 3, 1806. From the mouth of the Willamette he wrote in his journal how he could see five peaks -- Mount Jefferson, Mount Hood, Mount St. Helens, Mount Adams is the "high humped Mountain", and Mount Rainier:
    "... "... from the enterance of this river, I can plainly See Mt. Jefferson which is high and Covered with snow S. E. Mt. Hood East, Mt St. Helians a high humped Mountain to the East of Mt St. Helians. I also Saw the Mt. Raneer Nearly North ..." [Clark, April 2, 1806]
    Lewis has a similar entry in his journal dated April 6, 1806:
    "... from the Columbia at the entrance of the Multonomah river Mount Jefferson bears S. E. this is a noble mountain. I think equally as high as Mount St. Helines but it's distance being much greater than that of the latter, so great a portion of it dose not appear above the range of mountains which lie betwen boath those stupendious mountains and this point of view. like M. St. Heleans from the same point boar N , Mount Hood due East, and Mount Ranier nearly North. there is also a very high humped mountain a little to the East of Mount St. Heleans which appears to lie in the same chain with those conic pointed mountains before mentioned. ..." [Lewis, April 6, 1806]
    The 1814 Biddle/Allen publication, which this web presentation follows, has the entry on April 3, 1806, as Clark returned to camp and reported what he had seen.

    While sitting in camp, Lewis wrote about Mount Hood:

    "... From this place Mount Hood bears S. 85o E. distant 40 miles ..." [Lewis, April 3, 1806]


  • April 4-5, 1806 -- Back on the Columbia - The Willamette Valley
  • April 6-8, 1806 -- Columbia River Gorge - Cottonwood Beach Camp to Shepperd's Dell
  • April 9, 1806 -- Columbia River Gorge - Shepperd's Dell to Bonneville
  • April 10-11, 1806 -- Columbia River Gorge - Bonneville Vicinity
  • April 12, 1806 -- Columbia River Gorge - "Lower Falls of the Columbia", Cascade Locks
  • April 13, 1806 -- Columbia River Gorge - Cascade Locks to Dog Mountain
  • April 14, 1806 -- Columbia River Gorge - Dog Mountain to Major Creek
  • April 15, 1806 -- Columbia River Gorge - Major Creek to The Dalles
  • April 16-17, 1806 -- Leaving the Gorge - Rock Fort and The Dalles

    button, click for more information In the Biddle/Allen publication for April 16, 1806, Mount Hood is mentioned in reference to the source of the Hood River.


  • April 18-20, 1806 -- Up the Columbia River - The Dalles and the "Long Narrows"
  • April 21, 1806 -- Up the Columbia River - Celilo Falls to the Deschutes
  • April 22, 1806 -- Up the Columbia River - Deschutes to the John Day

    button, click for more information April 22, 1806, is the last date Lewis and Clark make mention of any of the five Cascade Range volcanoes. Clark wrote about Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson, from the Haystack Butte, Washington area:
    "... dureing the time the front of the party was waiting for Cap Lewis, I assended a high hill from which I could plainly See the range of Mountains which runs South from Mt. Hood as far as I could See. I also discovered the top of Mt. Jefferson which is Covered with Snow and is S 10o W. Mt. Hood is S. 30o W. the range of mountains are Covered with timber and also Mt. Hood to a sertain hite. The range of Mountains has Snow on them. ..."


  • April 23-28, 1806 -- Up the Columbia River - Rock Creek to Walla Walla
  • April 29, 1806 -- Up the Columbia River - Walla Walla
  • April 30, 1806 -- The Walla Walla Shortcut - Overland, Walla Walla to the Touchet


May - June 1806





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June/July 2004, Lyn Topinka
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