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The Volcanoes of
Lewis and Clark
October 21, 1805
Rapids and Rivers - Roosevelt and Arlington to the John Day
 
Home
The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark

Map of the Journey
Volcanoes, Basalt Plateaus, Major Rivers, etc.

The Volcanoes
Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, Mount Rainier, and Mount St. Helens

CALENDAR of the Journey
October 1805 to June 1806

Along the Journey
Pacific Northwest Maps - Columbia River, Volcanoes, Flood Basalts, Missoula Floods, Geology, etc.

The Corps of Discovery
The Journey of Lewis and Clark

About the Reference Materials
The Journals, Biddle/Allen, DeVoto, Gass, Moulton, Topo Maps, and others

USGS Lewis and Clark Links
Links to USGS Websites highlighting the Lewis and Clark Journey

Resources
Publications Referenced and Websites Visited

PREVIOUS

October 20
Islands and Ridges, Umatilla NWR to Roosevelt and Arlington
October 21

Rapids and Rivers
Roosevelt and Arlington to the John Day

Rapids, Rock Creek, Rapids in the John Day area, John Day River and LePage Park, John Day Dam, Downstream of the John Day Dam, Mount Hood
CONTINUE

October 22
"Great Falls of the Columbia", Maryhill to Celilo
 

On October 7, 1805, Lewis and Clark and the "Corps of Discovery" began their journey down the Clearwater River and into the volcanics of the Pacific Northwest. The Corps travelled from the Clearwater to the Snake and down the "Great Columbia", finally reaching the Pacific Ocean on November 15, 1805. Along the journey they encountered the lava flows of the Columbia Plateau, river channels carved by the great "Missoula Floods", and the awesome beauty of five Cascade Range volcanoes.

Map, Lewis and Clark in the Pacific Northwest, click for brief
                         summary
[Click map for brief summary about the area]


 
To the Pacific - October 1805
Rapids and Rivers - Roosevelt and Arlington to the John Day
 

Lewis and Clark's camp of October 20, 1805 was on the Washington side of the Columbia River, near today's town of Roosevelt, and across from today's town of Arlington, Oregon.

Monday, October 21, 1805
The morning was cool, and the wind from the southwest. At five and a half miles we passed a small island, and one mile and a half further, another in the middle of the river, which has some rapid water near its head [Owyhee Rapids], and opposite to its lower extremity are eight cabins of Indians on the right side. We landed near them to breakfast ...... After breakfast we resumed our journey, and in the course of three miles passed a rapid [Blalock Rapids or Four O'clock Rapids ???] where large rocks were strewed across the river, and at the head of which on the right shore were two huts of Indians. We stopped here for the purpose of examining it, as we always do whenever any danger is to be apprehended, and send round by land all those who cannot swim.


Along the Journey - October 21, 1805
Topo Map, Rapids, 1916

Rapids:
Columbia River from Rock Creek to Arlington and Rock Creek, Four O'Clock, Blalock, and Owyhee Rapids.


Map, 1916, USGS topo map section, Columbia River with Rock Creek, Four O'clock, Blalock Rapids, and Owyhee Rapids, click to enlarge Map, 1916, USGS topo map section, Columbia River with Rock Creek, Four O'Clock, and Blalock Rapids, click to enlarge Map, 1916, USGS topo map section, Columbia River vicinity of Owyhee Rapids, click to enlarge Map, 1916, USGS topo map section, Columbia River vicinity of Owyhee Rapids, click to enlarge
  1. 1916 Map (section of original), from Arlington 1:125,000 topographic quadrangle. (Click to enlarge). Rock Creek to Arlington, with Rock Creek Rapids, Four O'Clock Rapids, Blalock Rapids, and Owyhee Rapids. Original map surveyed in 1912-1913, contour interval of 50 feet. -- Washington State University Archives Website, 2002
  2. 1916 Map (section of original), from Arlington 1:125,000 topographic quadrangle. (Click to enlarge). Rock Creek Rapids, Four O'Clock Rapids, and Blalock Rapids. Original map surveyed in 1912-1913, contour interval of 50 feet. -- Washington State University Archives Website, 2002
  3. 1916 Map (section of original), from Arlington 1:125,000 topographic quadrangle. (Click to enlarge). Blalock Rapids and Owyhee Rapids. Original map surveyed in 1912-1913, contour interval of 50 feet. -- Washington State University Archives Website, 2002
  4. 1916 Map (section of original), from Arlington 1:125,000 topographic quadrangle. (Click to enlarge). Owyhee Rapids, Roosevelt and Arlington. Original map surveyed in 1912-1913, contour interval of 50 feet. -- Washington State University Archives Website, 2002


Five miles further is another rapid [Rock Creek Rapids, sometimes Rock Rapids], formed by large rocks projecting from each side, above which were five huts of Indians on the right side, occupied like those we had already seen, in drying fish.

Rock Creek Rapids is just downstream of the mouth of Rock Creek (Washington side). Lewis and Clark make no mention of Rock Creek on their journey downstream, but on their return in 1806, they camp next to the creek.


Along the Journey - October 21, 1805
Rock Creek at mouth, 2004

Rock Creek:
Rock Creek basin consists of several small watersheds and encompasses an area of nearly 225 square miles in southeastern Washington. Rock Creek drains into the Columbia River about 12 miles upstream of John Day Lock and Dam. The drainages in the Rock Creek basin originate in the Simcoe Mountains along Bickleton Ridge, which forms the northern boundary of the subbasin and the southern boundary of the Yakama Indian Reservation. Most of the streams flow in a southerly to southeasterly direction to Lake Umatilla, the portion of the Columbia River impounded by the John Day Lock and Dam. The major streams include Badger Gulch, Harrison, Luna Gulch, Quartz and Squaw creeks as well as Rock Creek. Elevations range from 200 feet at the confluence of Rock Creek and the Columbia River to 4,721 feet at Lone Pine Butte. The geology of the Rock Creek basin is dominated by extensive basalt flows having a total thickness of up to 5,000 feet. The basalt in these flows erupted between 14 and 15.5 million years ago. -- Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Website, 2002


Map, 1854, Columbia River, Hood River to the John Day, click to enlarge Map, 1858 Military recon map, John Day River and Rock Creek, click to enlarge Map, 1858 Military recon map, Rock Creek, click to enlarge Map, 1916, USGS topo map section, Columbia River with Rock Creek, Four O'clock, Blalock Rapids, and Owyhee Rapids, click to enlarge Map, 1916, USGS topo map section, Columbia River with Rock Creek, Four O'clock, and Blalock Rapids, click to enlarge Map, 1984, Rock Creek, Washington, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1997, Columbia River from The Dalles to Rock Creek, click to enlarge Image, 2004, Rock Creek
  1. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Hood River to John Day area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Hood River (Dog River), Klickitat River (Klikatat R.), Mill Creek (?) (Wasco Ck.), The Dalles, The Deschutes (Wanwauwie or des Chutes R.), the John Day River (Mah hah or John Day's R.), and Rock Creek (Camill Cr.). Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  2. 1858 Military Recon Map (section of original), upstream of Rock Creek. (Click to enlarge). Map of military reconnaissance from Fort Dalles, Oregon, via Fort Wallah-Wallah, to Fort Taylor, Washington Territory, 1858. Shows approximate location of military road constructed 1859 to 1862. From the report and maps of Captain John Mullan, United States Army, G.P.O., 1863. University of Washington Archives #UW85. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  3. 1858 Military Recon Map (section of original), Columbia River and area upstream of Rock Creek. (Click to enlarge). Map of military reconnaissance from Fort Dalles, Oregon, via Fort Wallah-Wallah, to Fort Taylor, Washington Territory, 1858. Shows approximate location of military road constructed 1859 to 1862. From: the report and maps of Captain John Mullan, United States Army G.P.O., 1863. -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  4. 1916 Map (section of original), from Arlington 1:125,000 topographic quadrangle. (Click to enlarge). Rock Creek to Arlington, with Rock Creek Rapids, Four O'Clock Rapids, Blalock Rapids, and Owyhee Rapids. Original map surveyed in 1912-1913, contour interval of 50 feet. -- Washington State University Archives Website, 2002
  5. 1916 Map, Rock Creek Rapids and Rock Creek (section of original), from Arlington 1:125,000 topographic quadrangle. (Click to enlarge). Rock Creek Rapids, Four O'Clock Rapids, and Blalock Rapids. Original map surveyed in 1912-1913, contour interval of 50 feet. -- Washington State University Archives Website, 2002
  6. 1984 Map, Rock Creek, Washington (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, John Day Dam to Blalock, 1984, Chart#18535, 1:20,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  7. 1997, NASA Image, Columbia River from The Dalles to Rock Creek (Click to enlarge). View from space - northeast looking photograph of Columbia River, The Dalles Dam, John Day Dam, Miller Island, Maryhill area, Deschutes River, John Day River, and Rock Creek, 1997. The Columbia River flows upper right (east) to lower left (west). NASA Earth from Space #STS085-734-085. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  8. 2004, Rock Creek, Washington, at mouth looking upstream. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2004 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


One mile below this is the lower point of an island close to the right side, opposite to which on that shore, are two Indian huts. On the left side of the river at this place, are immense piles of rocks, which seem to have slipped from the cliffs under which they lie; they continue till spreading still farther into the river, at the distance of a mile from the island, they occasion a very dangerous rapid [Squally Rapids]; a little below which on the right side are five huts. For many miles the river is now narrow and obstructed with very large rocks thrown into its channel; the hills continue high and covered, as is very rarely the case, with a few low pine trees on their tops. Between three and four miles below the last rapid [Squally Rapids] occurs a second, which is also difficult [Indian Rapids],
"... maney large rocks on each Side at Some distance from Shore, ... crouded with hugh rocks Scattered in every Direction which renders the pasage verry Difficuelt     a little above this rapid on the Lard. Side emence piles of rocks appears as if Sliped from the Clifts under which they lay, passed great number of rocks in every direction Scattered in the river ... much dificuelty in passing, the river is Crouded with rocks in every direction, ..." [Clark, October 21, 1805]


Along the Journey - October 21, 1805
Map, John Day area, 1858

Rapids in the John Day area:
Map detail from 1858 Military map showing Rock Rapids, Squally Rapids, Indian Rapids, and John Day's Rapids.


Map, 1858 Military recon map, John Day River and Rock Creek, click to enlarge Map, 1984, Upstream the John Day River, click to enlarge
  1. 1858 Military Recon Map (section of original), John Day River and Rock Creek. (Click to enlarge). Map of military reconnaissance from Fort Dalles, Oregon, via Fort Wallah-Wallah, to Fort Taylor, Washington Territory, 1858. Shows approximate location of military road constructed 1859 to 1862. From the report and maps of Captain John Mullan, United States Army, G.P.O., 1863. University of Washington Archives #UW85. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  2. 1984 Map, Upstream the John Day River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, John Day Dam to Blalock, 1984, Chart#18535, 1:20,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004


and three miles below it is a small river [John Day River], which seems to rise in the open plains to the southeast, and falls in on the left. It is forty yards wide at its mouth; but discharges only a small quantity of water at present: we gave it the name of Lepage's river [John Day River] from Lepage one of our company.
"... to the mouth of a Small river on the Lardboard Side 40 yards wide descharges but little water at this time, and appears to take its Sourse in the Open plains to the S. E. from this place I proceved Some fiew Small pines on the tops of the high hills and bushes in the hollars. ..." [Clark, October 21, 1805]


Along the Journey - October 21, 1805
John Day River and LePage Park, 2003

John Day River:
The John Day River in northeastern Oregon contains over 500 river miles and is the second largest undammed tributary in the western United States, after the Yellowstone River. Its spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead populations are two of the last remaining intact wild populations of anadromous fish in the Columbia River basin. The John Day River has also been kept relatively free of hatchery influences. Many segments of the John Day River have been designated under the federal Wild Scenic Rivers Act and Oregon's State Scenic Waterways Act. Topographically, the John Day basin is an interior plateau bounded by the Columbia River to the north (Lake Umatilla), the Blue Mountains to the east, the Aldrich Mountains and Strawberry Range to the south, and the Ochoco Mountains to the west. The basin drains a large portion of northeast Oregon (nearly 8,100 square miles), flows 284 miles from its source in the Strawberry Mountains (9,000 feet), to its mouth at RM 217 on the Columbia River (200 feet). The John Day basin is characterized by diverse landforms ranging from loess-covered plateaus in the lower sections to glaciated alpine peaks in the headwaters. Elevations range from 200 feet at the mouth of the John Day River to over 9,000 feet in the Strawberry Mountains. Two major physiographic provinces exist in the John Day basin -- the Deschutes-Umatilla Plateau and the Blue Mountains. A third province, the Columbia Basin, is a minor province along the confluence with the Columbia River. -- Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Website, 2002


Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1833, Illman and Pilbrow, Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1837, Columbia River with Mount Hood, click to enlarge Map, 1849, Alexander Ross's Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Hood River to the John Day, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Walla Walla to Vancouver, click to enlarge Map, 1858 Military recon map, John Day River and Rock Creek, click to enlarge Map, 1984, John Day Dam and the John Day River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1997, Columbia River from The Dalles to Rock Creek, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River and the John Day area, click to enlarge Image, 2003, John Day River
  1. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows the John Day River ("R. la Page"). From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  2. 1833 Map (section of original), Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Includes Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson. Note: Mount Baker is depicted (upper middle) but Mounts Adams, Rainier and St. Helens are missing. The Columbia River is shown as "Oregon River" at its mouth and "Columbia or Oregon R." further inland. "Wappatoo Valley" is labeled. Also shows Fort Clatsop ("F. Clatsop or F. George"), the Willamette River ("Multnomah R."), Sandy River ("Quicksand R."), John Day River ("R.La Page"), Walla Walla River ("Wallwullah R."), Snake River ("Lewis R."), and the Yakima River ("Tapete R."). Original Map: Oregon Territory, 1833. Creator: Illman & Pilbrow, published by Illman & Pilbrow, New York. Comments: Illman & Pilbrow is the engraving firm which copyrighted and published this map, the actual artist is unknown. Washington State University Digital Maps Collection #WSU323. University of Washington Digital Maps Collection #UW104. -- Washington State University Early Washington Maps Digital Collection Website, 2004
  3. 1837 Map, Columbia River with Mount Hood (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes the "Wallamant or Multnomah R.". Original Map: Map of the Territory West of the Rocky Mountains (1837) Author: Washington Irving, Publisher: Philadelphia, Carey, Lea, & Blanchard. Washington State University Archives #WSU555. -- Washington State University Early Washington Maps Digital Collection Website, 2004
  4. 1849 Map (section of original), Alexander Ross's Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: Map of the Columbia to illustrate Ross's adventures. Author: Alexander Ross; Publication Date: 1849; Publisher: London, Smith, Elder and Co., 1849. Washington State University Archives #WSU478. -- Washington State University Early Washington Maps Digital Collection Website, 2004
  5. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  6. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Hood River to John Day area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Hood River (Dog River), Klickitat River (Klikatat R.), Mill Creek (?) (Wasco Ck.), The Dalles, Fifteen Mile Creek (Waiyum or Olney's Ck.), The Deschutes (Wanwauwie or des Chutes R.), the John Day River (Mah hah or John Day's R.), and Rock Creek (Camill Cr.). Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  7. 1855 Map, Columbia River, including "John Days River" (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  8. 1858 Military Recon Map (section of original), John Day River and Rock Creek. (Click to enlarge). Map of military reconnaissance from Fort Dalles, Oregon, via Fort Wallah-Wallah, to Fort Taylor, Washington Territory, 1858. Shows approximate location of military road constructed 1859 to 1862. From the report and maps of Captain John Mullan, United States Army, G.P.O., 1863. University of Washington Archives #UW85. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  9. 1984 Map, John Day Dam and the John Day River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, John Day Dam to Blalock, 1984, Chart#18535, 1:20,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  10. 1997, NASA Image, Columbia River from The Dalles to Rock Creek (Click to enlarge). View from space - northeast looking photograph of Columbia River, The Dalles Dam, John Day Dam, Miller Island, Maryhill area, Deschutes River, John Day River, and Rock Creek, 1997. The Columbia River flows upper right (east) to lower left (west). NASA Earth from Space #STS085-734-085. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  11. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River and the John Day area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River and the John Day area, west-northwest-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. The Columbia River is running from bottom (east) to top (west). The John Day Dam is visible across the Columbia River. The John Day River enters the Columbia from the Oregon side (south, left of river, bottom center). The right of the river (north) is Washington State. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-092. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  12. 2003, John Day River and LePage Park, Oregon. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


LePage Park, Oregon:
LePage Park was named for expedition member private Jean LePage, whose name Lewis and Clark gave to today's John Day River. -- Lewis and Clark Bicentennial in Oregon Website, 2002


Near this little river and immediately below it, we had to encounter a new rapid [John Day Rapids, today the site of the John Day Dam].
"... imediately above & below this little river comences a rapid which is crouded with large rocks in every direction, the pasage both crooked and dificuelt, we halted at a Lodge to examine those noumerous Islands of rock which apd. to extend maney miles below ... after passing this rapid which we accomplished without loss; winding through between the hugh rocks for about 2 miles ..." [Clark, October 21, 1805]


Along the Journey - October 21, 1805
John Day Dam, 1998

John Day Dam:
The John Day Dam is located at the head of Lake Celilo, 216 miles upstream from the mouth of the Columbia River. The dam crosses the river near Rufus, Oregon, about 25 miles upstream from The Dalles, just below the mouth of the John Day River. To get to John Day Dam take exit 109 from Interstate 84. The project consists of a navigation lock, spillway, powerhouse and fish passage facilities on both shores. Construction began in 1958 and was completed in 1971, at a total cost of $511 million. At the time of it's completion, John Day Dam Powerhouse was the second largest in the world. Completion of the John Day Dam marked the final step in harnessing the lower waters of the Columbia River. Lake Umatilla, the reservoir behind the John Day Dam, extends approximately 76 miles upstream to the foot of McNary Dam. -- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Website, 2002


Map, 1858 Military recon map, John Day River and Rock Creek, click to enlarge Map, 1984, John Day Dam and the John Day River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1997, Columbia River from The Dalles to Rock Creek, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River and the John Day area, click to enlarge Image, 1958, Columbia River near the John Day Dam site, click to enlarge Image, 1998, Aerial view, John Day Dam, click to enlarge
  1. 1858 Military Recon Map (section of original), John Day River and Rock Creek. (Click to enlarge). Map of military reconnaissance from Fort Dalles, Oregon, via Fort Wallah-Wallah, to Fort Taylor, Washington Territory, 1858. Shows approximate location of military road constructed 1859 to 1862. From the report and maps of Captain John Mullan, United States Army, G.P.O., 1863. University of Washington Archives #UW85. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  2. 1984 Map, John Day Dam and the John Day River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, John Day Dam to Blalock, 1984, Chart#18535, 1:20,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  3. 1997, NASA Image, Columbia River from The Dalles to Rock Creek (Click to enlarge). View from space - northeast looking photograph of Columbia River, The Dalles Dam, John Day Dam, Miller Island, Maryhill area, Deschutes River, John Day River, and Rock Creek, 1997. The Columbia River flows upper right (east) to lower left (west). NASA Earth from Space #STS085-734-085. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  4. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River and the John Day area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River and the John Day area, west-northwest-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. The Columbia River is running from bottom (east) to top (west). The John Day Dam is visible across the Columbia River. The John Day River enters the Columbia from the Oregon side (south, left of river, bottom center). The right of the river (north) is Washington State. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-092. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  5. 1958, John Day Dam site as seen on September 16, 1958. (Click to enlarge). The dam on the Columbia River just below the mouth of the John Day River was completed in 1968. Oregon State Archives Photograph #7263 (Ben Maxwell). Photograph Date: September 16, 1958. Photographer: Ben Maxwell. From: Salem Public Library Collection. -- Oregon State Archives Website, 2002
  6. 1998, aerial view of the John Day Dam. (Click to enlarge). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Photograph #4597-41. Photograph Date: June 9, 1998. Photographer: Bill Johnson. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Photo Archives. -- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Website, 2002


The river is crowded in every direction, with large rocks and small rocky islands; the passage crooked and difficult, and for two miles we were obliged to wind with great care along the narrow channels and between the huge rocks. At the end of this rapid [John Day Rapids] are four huts of Indians on the right, and two miles below five more huts on the same side. Here we landed and passed the night, after making thirty-three miles. [Washington side, downstream of today's John Day Dam]. ......
"... we proceeded on passed River hills and cliffs of rocks on each side. passed over a number of bad rockey rapids where the River is nearly filled with high dark couloured rocks the water divided in narrow deep channels, bad whorl pools ... we came about 32 miles this day and Camped at some Indian lodges close under high clifts of rocks on the Stard Side a handsome Spring flowed out of the clifts ..." [Ordway, October 21, 1805]


Along the Journey - October 21, 1805
Columbia River downstream of the John Day Dam, 2003

Downstream of the John Day Dam:
Map detail from 1858 Military map showing Rock Rapids, Squally Rapids, Indian Rapids, and John Day's Rapids.


Map, 1858 Military recon map, John Day River and Rock Creek, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Columbia River downstream John Day Dam
  1. 1858 Military Recon Map (section of original), John Day River and Rock Creek. (Click to enlarge). Map of military reconnaissance from Fort Dalles, Oregon, via Fort Wallah-Wallah, to Fort Taylor, Washington Territory, 1858. Shows approximate location of military road constructed 1859 to 1862. From the report and maps of Captain John Mullan, United States Army, G.P.O., 1863. University of Washington Archives #UW85. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  2. 2003, Columbia River looking downstream of the John Day Dam. View is from the Oregon side of the Columbia. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


The hills in this neighbourhood are high and rugged, and a few scattered trees, either small pine or scrubby white oak, are occasionally seen on them. From the last rapids we also observed the conical mountain towards the southwest, which the Indians say is not far to the left of the great falls [Celilo Falls]. From its vicinity to that place we called it the Timm or Falls mountain. [Mount Hood] Among other things we observed some acorns, the fruit of the white oak. These they use as food either raw or roasted, and on inquiry informed us that they were procured from the Indians who live near the great falls. This place they designate by a name very commonly applied to it by the Indians, and highly expressive, the word 'Timm', which they pronounce so as to make it perfectly represent the sound of a distant cataract
"... from this rapid the Conocil mountain is S. W. which the Indians inform me is not far to the left of the great falls; this I call the 'Timm' or falls mountain it is high and the top is covered with Snow ..." [Clark, October 21, 1805]


Along the Journey - October 21, 1805
Mount Hood, Oregon, from Maryhill Museum, Washington, 2003

Mount Hood:
Mount Hood, at 11,245 feet high, is the fourth highest peak in the Cascade Range and the highest in the state of Oregon. The peak dominates the skyline from the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area to the wheat fields of Wasco and Sherman Counties of eastern Oregon.


Map, the Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1993, Mount Hood and Vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Vancouver to the Pacific, click to enlarge Map, 1860, Columbia River, Washington, Oregon, click to enlarge Image, Mount Hood and the Maryhill Museum, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Mount Hood from Maryhill, Washington
  1. Map, "Lewis and Clark Volcano Sitings"
  2. 1993 Map, Mount Hood and Vicinity, showing river drainages which flow into the Columbia river. (Click to enlarge). Includes Hood River and the Sandy River. Map modified from: Brantley and Scott, 1993.
  3. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows Mount Hood. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  4. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  5. 1855 Map, Columbia River from Vancouver to the Pacific, including Mount St. Helens (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  6. 1860 Map, Columbia River, Washington State, and Oregon (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: Map of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, (1860). This map dates between March 2nd, 1861 (when the Dakota Territory was formed) and March 4th, 1863 (when the Idaho Territory was formed from eastern Washington and western Dakota) Nearing retirement from a thirty year long and rather successful career, S. Augustus Mitchell printed this map showcasing Oregon, the Territory of Washington, and British Columbia. Washington became a territory in 1853, arguing that distances to Willamette Valley kept them from obtaining a voice in the Oregon territorial government. As this map shows, when it split from Oregon proper the Washington territory included parts of Wyoming and Montana and all of Idaho. Territorial government for Idaho would not be approved until 1863. When Mitchell retired he left the business for his son to manage. Washington State University Archives #WSU7. -- Washington State University Archives, 2004
  7. Mount Hood, Oregon, and the Maryhill Museum, Washington State. (Click to enlarge). Looking West at the Maryhill Museum with Mount Hood in the distance. University of Washington Photo Archives #WAS0564. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2003
  8. 2003, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from from Maryhill Museum, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.



The country through which we passed is furnished with several fine springs, which rise either high up the sides of the hills or else in the river meadows, and discharge themselves into the Columbia. We could not help remarking that almost universally the fishing establishments of the Indians, both on the Columbia and the waters of Lewis's river [Snake River], are on the right bank [Washington side of the Columbia]. On inquiry we were led to believe that the reason may be found in their fear of the Snake Indians; between whom and themselves, considering the warlike temper of that people, and the peaceful habits of the river tribes, it is very natural that the latter should be anxious to interpose so good a barrier. These Indians are described as residing on a great river to the south [Snake River], and always at war with the people of this neighbourhood. ......


Along the Journey - October 21, 1805
The Camp - October 21, 1805:
Camped on the Washington side of the Columbia, downstream of the site of modern John Day Dam.



 
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June/July 2004, Lyn Topinka
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