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The Volcanoes of
Lewis and Clark
November 15, 1805
Reaching the Pacific - Station Camp to the Pacific Ocean
 
Home
The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark

Map of the Journey
Volcanoes, Basalt Plateaus, Major Rivers, etc.

The Volcanoes
Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, Mount Rainier, and Mount St. Helens

CALENDAR of the Journey
October 1805 to June 1806

Along the Journey
Pacific Northwest Maps - Columbia River, Volcanoes, Flood Basalts, Missoula Floods, Geology, etc.

The Corps of Discovery
The Journey of Lewis and Clark

About the Reference Materials
The Journals, Biddle/Allen, DeVoto, Gass, Moulton, Topo Maps, and others

USGS Lewis and Clark Links
Links to USGS Websites highlighting the Lewis and Clark Journey

Resources
Publications Referenced and Websites Visited


PREVIOUS

November 12-14
Nearing the Pacific, Hungry Harbor to Megler Cove
November 15

Reaching the Pacific,
Station Camp to the Pacific Ocean

Megler Point and Megler Cove, Rain, Mount St. Helens and Mount Adams, Point Ellice, Baker Bay, Station Camp, Reaching the Pacific
CONTINUE

November 16-17
At the Pacific, Station Camp and Cape Disappointment
 

On October 7, 1805, Lewis and Clark and the "Corps of Discovery" began their journey down the Clearwater River and into the volcanics of the Pacific Northwest. The Corps travelled from the Clearwater to the Snake and down the "Great Columbia", finally reaching the Pacific Ocean on November 15, 1805. Along the journey they encountered the lava flows of the Columbia Plateau, river channels carved by the great "Missoula Floods", and the awesome beauty of five Cascade Range volcanoes.

Map, Lewis and Clark in the Pacific Northwest, click for brief
                         summary
[Click map for brief summary about the area]


 
To the Pacific - November 1805
Reaching the Pacific - Station Camp to the Pacific Ocean
 

Lewis and Clark's camp of November 12-14, 1805, was in Megler Cove, just downstream of today's Megler Rest Area.

Friday, November 15, 1805
It continued raining all night, but in the morning the weather became calm and fair: we therefore began to prepare for setting out, but before we were ready a high wind sprang up from the southeast, and obliged us to remain [at Megler Cove]. The sun shone until one o'clock, and we were thus enabled to dry our bedding and examine our baggage.


Along the Journey - November 15, 1805
Megler Cove and Megler Point, 1997

Megler Point and Megler Cove:
Megler Cove is just west of the Megler Visitors Information Center. Clark gave the spot the name "Dismal nitch", which no doubt reflected the state of mind of the entire party. -- Pacific County Friends of Lewis & Clark Website, 2002


Map, 1987, Point Ellice, Megler, Hungry Harbor, click to enlarge Image, 1997, Megler Cove, click to enlarge Image, 1997, Megler Point, click to enlarge
  1. 1987 Map, Point Ellice, Megler, Hungry Harbor (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Pacific Ocean to Harrington Point, 1987, Chart#18521, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  2. 1997, Aerial view, Megler Cove. (Click to enlarge). Washington State Department of Ecology Shorelines Aerial Photo #PAC0620, May 13, 1997. -- Washington State Department of Ecology Website, 2002
  3. 1997, Aerial view, Megler Point. (Click to enlarge). View shows the Megler Rest Area and Visitor Information Center. Washington State Department of Ecology Shorelines Aerial Photo #PAC0621, May 13, 1997. -- Washington State Department of Ecology Website, 2002


The rain, which has continued for the last ten days without an interval of more than two hours, has completely wet all our merchandise, and spoiled some of our fish, destroyed the robes, and rotted nearly one half of our few remaining articles of clothing, particularly the leather dresses.
"... The rainey weather continued without a longer intermition than 2 hours at a time, from the 5th in the morng. untill the 16th is eleven days rain, and the most disagreeable time I have experenced confined on a tempiest coast wet, where I can neither git out to hunt, return to a better situation, or proceed on: in this situation have we been for Six days past ..." [Clark, November 15, 1805]


Along the Journey - November 15, 1805
Rain:
The lower Columbia River area has a marine climate. The summers are cool, with highs around 70, and the winters are mild, with few nights of freezing temperatures. The area gets about 75 inches of rain per year, which accounts for its vivid greenness and crystal clear air. Winter storms can be dramatic with winds reaching 70 to 100 miles per hour on the ocean bluffs. -- Astoria and Warrenton Chamber of Commerce Website, 2002


Had it not been raining, both Mount St. Helens and Mount Adams could have been seen from this stretch of the Columbia, before the men rounded Point Ellice.


Along the Journey - November 15, 1805
Mount Adams (left) and Mount St. Helens from near mouth of the Columbia, 2004

Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens:
On November 25, 1805, Captain Clark wrote in his journal
"... Mt St. Hilians Can be Seen from the mouth of this river ..."
Astoria, Oregon, near the mouth of the Columbia River, is nearly 100 miles east of Mount St. Helens, Washington. In Lewis and Clark's time Mount St. Helens was 9,677 feet high. Since the eruption of May 18, 1980, the volcano is 8,364 feet high. Mount Adams, which Captain Clark did not mention, is east of Mount St. Helens, and, at 12,236 feet, can also be seen from near the mouth of the Columbia River.


Map, the Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Vancouver to the Pacific, click to enlarge Map, 1860, Columbia River, Washington, Oregon, click to enlarge Image, 1987, Mount Adams, Washington, from Troutlake, click to enlarge Image, ca.1853, Mount St. Helens and the mouth of the Columbia River, click to enlarge Image, 1889, Mount St. Helens and the mouth of the Columbia River, click to enlarge Image, 1978, Mount St. Helens, before the May 18, 1980 eruption, click to enlarge Image, 1982, Mount St. Helens from Spirit Lake, click to enlarge Image, 2004, Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens from Point Ellice
  1. Map, "Lewis and Clark Volcano Sitings"
  2. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Map includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is to the south (bottom) and off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  3. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  4. 1855 Map, Columbia River from Vancouver to the Pacific, including Mount St. Helens (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  5. 1860 Map, Columbia River, Washington State, and Oregon (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: Map of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, (1860). This map dates between March 2nd, 1861 (when the Dakota Territory was formed) and March 4th, 1863 (when the Idaho Territory was formed from eastern Washington and western Dakota) Nearing retirement from a thirty year long and rather successful career, S. Augustus Mitchell printed this map showcasing Oregon, the Territory of Washington, and British Columbia. Washington became a territory in 1853, arguing that distances to Willamette Valley kept them from obtaining a voice in the Oregon territorial government. As this map shows, when it split from Oregon proper the Washington territory included parts of Wyoming and Montana and all of Idaho. Territorial government for Idaho would not be approved until 1863. When Mitchell retired he left the business for his son to manage. Washington State University Archives #WSU7. -- Washington State University Archives, 2004
  6. 1987, USGS Photo showing Mount Adams, Washington, from Trout Lake (Click to enlarge). Photographer: Lyn Topinka, Date: November 1987. -- USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory Photo Archives, 2004
  7. ca.1853, Engraving. Mouth of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Engraving depicts the Mouth of the Columbia River, Point Ellice, Mount St. Helens, and Tongue Point. Original also depicts Cape Disappointment and Point Adams. From: NOAA Photo Archives, America's Coastline Collection #line2075. -- NOAA Photo Archvies Website, 2002
  8. 1889, Engraving/Sketch. Mouth of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Engraving depicts the Mouth of the Columbia River, Point Ellice, Mount St. Helens, and Tongue Point. Original also depicts Scarborough Hill. From: NOAA Library, Pacific Coast Coast Pilot of California, Oregon, and Washington, 1889 -- NOAA Photo Archives Website, 2004
  9. 1978, View of Mount St. Helens, before the eruption of May 18, 1980. (Click to enlarge). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Photograph #Sce0234. Photograph Date: 1978. Photographer: unknown. From: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Photo Archives. -- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Website, 2002
  10. 1982, USGS Photo showing Mount St. Helens after the May 18, 1980 eruption. The volcano is reflected in Spirit Lake. (Click to enlarge). Photographer: Lyn Topinka, Date: May 19, 1982. -- USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory Photo Archives, 2004
  11. 2004, Mount Adams (left) and Mount St. Helens, Washington, as seen from Point Ellice, Washington, 14 miles upstream from the mouth of the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2004 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.



About three o'clock the wind fell, and we instantly loaded the canoes, and left the miserable spot to which we have been confined the last six days [Hungry Harbor, campsite of November 10 and 11, and Megler Cove, campsite of November 12 through 14]. On turning the point [Point Ellice] we came to the sand beach, through which runs a small stream from the hills [???]; at the mouth of which is an ancient village of thirty-six houses; which has at present no inhabitants except fleas. Here we met Shannon, who had been sent back to meet us by captain Lewis. ......
"... About 3 oClock the wind luled, and the river became calm, I had the canoes loaded in great haste and Set Out, from this dismal nitich where we have been confined for 6 days passed, without the possibility of proceeding on, returning to a better Situation, or get out to hunt, Scerce of Provisions, and torents of rain poreing on us all the time -- proceeded on passed the blustering point below which I found a butifull Sand beech thro which runs a Small below the mouth of this Stream is a 'village' of 36 houses uninhabited by anything except flees ..." [Clark, November 15, 1805]


Along the Journey - November 15, 1805
Point Ellice, 2004

Point Ellice:
Point Ellice is located on the Washington side of the Columbia River, 11 miles inside it's entrance, and is a large promontory projecting into the Columbia River. It is the termination of a spur from the mountain ridge back of Scarboro Hill. The point is rounding and rocky, but not high. Two high hillocks lie behind the point. Scarboro Hill is a long, gradually rising ridge, 820 feet high, covered with grass, fern, and some trees. During a seasonal storm that raged inward from the coast, the Lewis and Clark were forced to stay for a week on the east side of Point Ellice. Wind lacerated, waves lashed, and the roaring sea attacked them from every quarter. Gale-force winds threatened to thrust the party into the seething water. "Point Distress," "Stormy Point," and "Blustering Point" were names used to describe the site of the corps' plight during their attempt to reach the mouth of the Columbia. Point Ellice was named by fur traders of the North West Company to honor Edward Ellice, a London agent of the company. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2003, and Washington State Historical Society Website, 2002


Map, 1887, Mouth of the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1987, McGowan, Point Ellice, Astoria-Megler Bridge, Megler, click to enlarge NASA Image, 2001, Mouth of the Columbia River, click to enlarge Image, ca.1853, Mouth of the Columbia River, click to enlarge Image, 1889, Mount St. Helens and the mouth of the Columbia River, click to enlarge Image, 1972, Mouth of the Columbia River, click to enlarge Image, 1997, Ellice Point and the Astoria-Megler Bridge, click to enlarge Image, 2004, Point Ellice
  1. 1887 Map (section of original), Mouth of the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  2. 1987 Map, McGowan, Point Ellice, Astoria-Megler Bridge, Megler (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Pacific Ocean to Harrington Point, 1987, Chart#18521, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  3. 2001, NASA Image, Mouth of the Columbia River, including the location of Fort Clatsop. (Click to enlarge). NASA Space Shuttle photograph of the mouth of the Columbia River, including the location of Fort Clatsop, Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge, Tenasillahe Island, Puget Island, and Crim's Island, and others, June 20, 2001. NASA Astronaut Photography of Earth #SS002-724-30. -- NASA Astronaut Photography of Earth Website, 2002
  4. ca.1853, Engraving. Mouth of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Engraving depicts the Mouth of the Columbia River, Point Ellice, Mount St. Helens, and Tongue Point. Original also depicts Cape Disappointment and Point Adams. From: NOAA Photo Archives, America's Coastline Collection #line2075. -- NOAA Photo Archvies Website, 2002
  5. 1889, Engraving/Sketch. Mouth of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Engraving depicts the Mouth of the Columbia River, Point Ellice, Mount St. Helens, and Tongue Point. Original also depicts Scarborough Hill. From: NOAA Library, Pacific Coast Coast Pilot of California, Oregon, and Washington, 1889 -- NOAA Photo Archives Website, 2004
  6. 1982, Aerial view of the Columbia River entering the Pacific Ocean. (Click to enlarge). Looking east, this photograph shows several jetties, the town of Astoria in Clatsop County on the Oregon (south) side of the river, and Pacific County on the Washington (north) side of the river. Oregon State Archives Photograph #OMB0032, Photograph Date: June 1, 1972, Oregon State Marine Board. -- Oregon State Archives Website, 2002
  7. 1997, Aerial view, Point Ellice and the Astoria-Megler Bridge. (Click to enlarge). Washington State Department of Ecology Shorelines Aerial Photo #PAC0617, May 13, 1997. -- Washington State Department of Ecology Website, 2002
  8. 2004, Point Ellice, Washington, as seen from Megler Rest Area along Washington Highway 401. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2004 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


It was now apparent that the sea was at all times too rough for us to proceed further down the bay [Baker Bay] by water:


Along the Journey - November 15, 1805
Chinook Point and Baker Bay, 2004

Baker Bay:
In 1792, William Broughton named the bay, "Baker's Bay," to give credit to a British merchant, Captain James Baker, whose ship was anchored inside the Columbia's mouth when Broughton crossed the bar to explore the river for Vancouver. Lewis and Clark named the bay "Haley's Bay", for the Indians' favorite trader, as reported to the captains. -- Washington State Historical Society Website, 2002


Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1887, Mouth of the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1887, Cape Disappointment and Baker Bay, click to enlarge Map, 1987, Cape Disappointment, Ilwaco, Baker Bay, click to enlarge NASA Image, 2001, Mouth of the Columbia River, click to enlarge Image, 2004, Downstream from Station Camp Image, 2004, Baker Bay and Ilwaco, Washington
  1. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Baker Bay is just barely depicted on the map, and has no clear definition (just east of Cape Disappointment). Map also includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is to the south (bottom) and off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  2. 1887 Map (section of original), Mouth of the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  3. 1887, Map, Cape Disappointment and Baker Bay. (Click to enlarge). Mouth of the Columbia River showing fishtraps in Baker's Bay, 1887. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Map, published 1888. University of Washington Map Archives #UW129. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  4. 1987 Map, Cape Disappointment, Ilwaco, Baker Bay (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Pacific Ocean to Harrington Point, 1987, Chart#18521, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  5. 2001, NASA Image, Mouth of the Columbia River, including Baker Bay. (Click to enlarge). NASA Space Shuttle photograph of the mouth of the Columbia River, including the location of Fort Clatsop, Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge, Tenasillahe Island, Puget Island, and Crim's Island, and others, June 20, 2001. NASA Astronaut Photography of Earth #SS002-724-30. -- NASA Astronaut Photography of Earth Website, 2002
  6. 2004, From Station Camp, looking downstream. Chinook Point is in the distance, with Baker Bay and Cape Disappointment at skyline. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2004 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.
  7. 2004, Looking across western end of Baker Bay towards Ilwaco, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Image taken from Cape Disappointment. Copyright © 2004 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


we therefore landed, and having chosen the best spot we could select, made our camp of boards from the old village. [Station Camp, site of today's McGowan, Washington]
"... as the tide was Comeing in and the Seas became verry high imediately from the 'Ocian' (imediately faceing us) I landed and formed a camp on the highest Spot I could find between the hight of the tides, and the Slashers in a Small bottom this I could plainly See would be the extent of our journey by water, as the waves were too high at any Stage for our Canoes to proceed any further down. ..." [Clark, November 15, 1805]


Along the Journey - November 15, 1805
Station Camp, 2004

Station Camp:
"Station Camp" was near a Chinook fishing village. At the highest spot they could find, the Corps landed and, using boards from the village houses, created a campsite which they named "Station Camp." Early photographs of this area, now called McGowan, indicate that the shoreline was as much as several hundred feet south of the present location on US 101. There is a current small roadside park just west of St. Mary's Church in the general area, but this is not the actual location of the campsite. -- Pacific County Friends of Lewis & Clark Website, 2002, Lewis and Clark Bicentennial in Oregon Website, 2002, and Washington State Historical Society Website, 2002


Map, 1987, Chinook Point, McGowan, Station Camp, Point Ellice, Megler, click to enlarge NASA Image, 2001, Mouth of the Columbia River, click to enlarge Image, ca.1935, View of area between Fort Columbia to Point Ellice, click to enlarge Image, 1997, McGowan, Washington, area of Station Camp, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Station Camp, Washington
  1. 1987 Map, Chinook Point, McGowan, Station Camp, Point Ellice, Megler (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Pacific Ocean to Harrington Point, 1987, Chart#18521, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  2. 2001, NASA Image, Mouth of the Columbia River, including Station Camp. (Click to enlarge). NASA Space Shuttle photograph of the mouth of the Columbia River, including the location of Fort Clatsop, Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge, Tenasillahe Island, Puget Island, and Crim's Island, and others, June 20, 2001. NASA Astronaut Photography of Earth #SS002-724-30. -- NASA Astronaut Photography of Earth Website, 2002
  3. ca.1935, View of area between Fort Columbia and Point Ellice. (Click to enlarge). Image from the Washington State Department of Transportation Archives, 1934-1936 Biennial Report. -- Washington State Department of Transportation Website, 2003
  4. 1997, Aerial view, McGowan, Washington, area of Station Camp. (Click to enlarge). Station Camp is pullout on the left edge. Washington State Department of Ecology Shorelines Aerial Photo #PAC0610, May 13, 1997. -- Washington State Department of Ecology Website, 2002
  5. 2004, Station Camp, Washington, informational sign. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2004 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


"... in full view of the 'Ocian' from 'Point Adams' to Cape Diaspointment, I could not See any Island in the mouth of this river as laid down by Vancouver. The Bay which he laies down in the mouth is imediately below me. This Bay we call Haleys bay [Baker Bay] from a favourate Trader with the Indians which they Say comes into this Bay and trades with them Course to Point adams is S.35o W. about 8 miles To Cape Disapointment is S.86o W. about 14 miles ..." [Clark, November 15, 1805]


Along the Journey - November 15, 1805
Pacific Ocean south of Seaview, Washington, 2004

Reaching the Pacific:
Lewis reached the Pacific Ocean near modern Seaview, Washington, November 15, 1805. Clark noted that it rained until 3 p.m.; there were 11 straight days of rain; he moved camp once more to Haley's Bay, where they stayed until November 24. -- U.S. National Park Service, Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Website, 2002


Map, 1798, Mouth of the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Vancouver to the Pacific, click to enlarge Map, 1887, Columbia River from mouth to Pillar Rock, click to enlarge Map, 1887, Mouth of the Columbia River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 2001, Mouth of the Columbia River, click to enlarge Image, ca.1853, Mouth of the Columbia River, click to enlarge Image, 1889, Mount St. Helens and the mouth of the Columbia River, click to enlarge Image, 1972, Mouth of the Columbia River, click to enlarge Image, 2004, Pacific Ocean from south of Seaview, Washington
  1. 1798 Map, Mouth of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Inset map of original, showing the mouth of the Columbia River, including Cape Disappointment, Point Adams, Youngs River, Point George (today's Astoria), and Grays Bay. Original Map: George Vancouver's "A Chart Shewing Part of the Coast of N.W. America." In A Voyage of discovery to the North Pacific ocean, and Round the World. London, 1798. University of Virginia Special Collection "Lewis & Clark, The Maps of Exploration 1507-1814". -- University of Virginia Library Archives Website, 2004
  2. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Map includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is to the south (bottom) and off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  3. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  4. 1855 Map, Columbia River from Vancouver to the Pacific (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  5. 1887 Map, Columbia River from the Mouth to Pillar Rock (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2004
  6. 1887 Map (section of original), Mouth of the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  7. 2001, NASA Image, Mouth of the Columbia River, including the location of Fort Clatsop. (Click to enlarge). NASA Space Shuttle photograph of the mouth of the Columbia River, including the location of Fort Clatsop, Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge, Tenasillahe Island, Puget Island, and Crim's Island, and others, June 20, 2001. NASA Astronaut Photography of Earth #SS002-724-30. -- NASA Astronaut Photography of Earth Website, 2002
  8. ca.1853, Engraving. Mouth of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Engraving depicts the Mouth of the Columbia River, Point Ellice, Mount St. Helens, and Tongue Point. Original also depicts Cape Disappointment and Point Adams. From: NOAA Photo Archives, America's Coastline Collection #line2075. -- NOAA Photo Archvies Website, 2002
  9. 1889, Engraving/Sketch. Mouth of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Engraving depicts the Mouth of the Columbia River, Point Ellice, Mount St. Helens, and Tongue Point. Original also depicts Scarborough Hill. From: NOAA Library, Pacific Coast Coast Pilot of California, Oregon, and Washington, 1889 -- NOAA Photo Archives Website, 2004
  10. 1982, Aerial view of the Columbia River entering the Pacific Ocean. (Click to enlarge). Looking east, this photograph shows several jetties, the town of Astoria in Clatsop County on the Oregon (south) side of the river, and Pacific County on the Washington (north) side of the river. Oregon State Archives Photograph #OMB0032, Photograph Date: June 1, 1972, Oregon State Marine Board. -- Oregon State Archives Website, 2002
  11. 2004, Pacific Ocean, as seen from bluff south of Seaview, Washington, and north of the North Head Lighthouse. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2004 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Along the Journey - November 15, 1805
The Camp - November 15 through November 24, 1805:
"Station Camp", near today's McGowan, Washington, site of today's Lewis & Clark Campsite State Park.



 
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June/July 2004, Lyn Topinka
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