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The Volcanoes of
Lewis and Clark
October 18, 1805
Down the "Great" Columbia River - to Spring Gulch
 
Home
The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark

Map of the Journey
Volcanoes, Basalt Plateaus, Major Rivers, etc.

The Volcanoes
Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, Mount Rainier, and Mount St. Helens

CALENDAR of the Journey
October 1805 to June 1806

Along the Journey
Pacific Northwest Maps - Columbia River, Volcanoes, Flood Basalts, Missoula Floods, Geology, etc.

The Corps of Discovery
The Journey of Lewis and Clark

About the Reference Materials
The Journals, Biddle/Allen, DeVoto, Gass, Moulton, Topo Maps, and others

USGS Lewis and Clark Links
Links to USGS Websites highlighting the Lewis and Clark Journey

Resources
Publications Referenced and Websites Visited


PREVIOUS

October 17
Side-Trip Up the Columbia, Tri-Cities and the Yakima River
October 18

Down the "Great Columbia",
Columbia/Snake Confluence to Spring Gulch

Junction of the Snake River with the Columbia River, Columbia River, Snake River, Islands at the Mouth, McNary NWR, Walla Walla River, Wallula Gap, Twin Sisters, first view of Mount Hood, Port Kelley and Spring Gulch
CONTINUE

October 19
Down the "Great Columbia", Spring Gulch to Umatilla
 

On October 7, 1805, Lewis and Clark and the "Corps of Discovery" began their journey down the Clearwater River and into the volcanics of the Pacific Northwest. The Corps travelled from the Clearwater to the Snake and down the "Great Columbia", finally reaching the Pacific Ocean on November 15, 1805. Along the journey they encountered the lava flows of the Columbia Plateau, river channels carved by the great "Missoula Floods", and the awesome beauty of five Cascade Range volcanoes.

Map, Lewis and Clark in the Pacific Northwest, click for brief
                         summary
[Click map for brief summary about the area]


 
To the Pacific - October 1805
Down the "Great" Columbia River - to Spring Gulch
 

Lewis and Clark's camp of October 16 and 17, 1805, was at the confluence of the Snake and Columbia Rivers, just east of Pasco, Washington. Today Sacajawea State Park is located at this junction. The original campsite is now under the waters of Lake Wallula, behind McNary Dam.

Friday, October 18, 1805
We were visited this morning by several canoes of Indians, who joined those who were already with us, and soon opened a numerous council. ...... We now procured from the principal chief and one of the Cuimnapum nation a sketch of the Columbia [Columbia River], and the tribes of his nation living along its banks and those of the Tapteet [Yakima River]. They drew it with a piece of coal on a robe, and as we afterwards transferred to paper, it exhibited a valuable specimen of Indian delineation.

Having completed the purposes of our stay, we now began to lay in our stores ...... The morning was cool and fair, and the wind from the southeast.

"... at 4 oClock we set out down the Great Columbia accompanied by our two old Chiefs, one young man wished to accompany us, but we had no room for more, & he could be of no service to us ..." [Clark, October 18, 1805]
"... Capt. Lewis had an observation at noon, which gave 46o 15 13.9 north latitude. At one we proceeded on down the Great Columbia, which is a very beautiful river. The course is something to the east of south for about 12 miles and then winds round to almost a west course ..." [Gass, October 18, 1805]
"... a clear pleasant morning. we delayed here until after 12 oClock to day Capt. Clark measured Columbia River and the Ki mo e nem Rivers and found the Columbia River to be 860 yards wide, and the ki moo enem R. to be 475 yards wide at the forks. Capt. Lewis Compleated his observations and found the Latitude to produce ... North ... about 2 oClock P.M. we Set out. two chiefs continued on with us ..." [Ordway, October 18, 1805]


Along the Journey - October 18, 1805
NASA photo, Snake River confluence with the Columbia River, 1994

Junction of the Snake River with the Columbia River:
The Snake River joins the Columbia River at River Mile 325, near Pasco, Washington. Lewis and Clark spent two nights camped at the junction, a spot known today as Sacajawea State Park.


Map, the Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Willow Creek to Walla Walla, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Clearwater and Snake from Canoe Camp to the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1858 Military recon map, Snake River entering the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1882, Snake River at Confluence with the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1893, Snake River showing Fish Hook Rapids, click to enlarge Map, 1987, Snake River confluence with the Columbia River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River from Crow Butte to the Snake River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River and the confluence of the Snake River, click to enlarge
  1. Map, Junction Snake River with the Columbia River (#9), October 16, 1805
  2. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows the junction of the Snake River ("Lewis's River") with the Columbia River (left). From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  3. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  4. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Horse Heaven Hills area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Horse Heaven Hills ("lands destitute of timber"), Willow Creek, Umatilla River, Walla Walla River, Touchet River, Twin Sisters ("Chimney Rock"), Yakima River, and the junction of the Snake River (only the "S" shows) with the Columbia. Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  5. 1855 Map, Clearwater and Snake Rivers, including the Confluence of the Snake River (Lewis Fork) and Columbia River (not named) (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  6. 1858 Military Recon Map (section of original), Snake River entering the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Map of military reconnaissance from Fort Dalles, Oregon, via Fort Wallah-Wallah, to Fort Taylor, Washington Territory, 1858. Shows approximate location of military road constructed 1859 to 1862. From the report and maps of Captain John Mullan, United States Army, G.P.O., 1863. University of Washington Archives #UW85. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  7. 1882 Map, Snake River Confluence with the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of the Upper Columbia River from the international boundary line to Snake River, on a scale of one inch to two miles, 1882, Sheet 25." U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1882. Washington State University Historical Maps Collection #WSU505. -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  8. 1893 Map, part of the Snake River showing location of principal rapids (section of original). Includes Fishhook Rapids. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Part of the Snake River from its mouth to the Grande Ronde, showing location of principal rapids". U.S. Engineers Office, 1893. Washington State University Historical Maps Collection #WSU586. -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  9. 1987 Map, Snake River confluence with the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Sacajawea State Park. Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Juniper to Pasco, 1987, Chart#18542, 1:20,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  10. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River from Crow Butte to the Snake River (section of original) (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River, Snake River, Yakima River, Walla Walla River, Umatilla River, Crow Butte and Wallula Gap, north-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-093. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  11. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River and the junction of the Snake River (section of original) (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River and the Snake River, north-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-093. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002



Columbia River, looking upstream, from Sacajawea State Park, 2003

Columbia River:
The Columbia River and its tributaries form the dominant water system in the Pacific Northwest. The mainstem of the Columbia rises in Columbia Lake in British Columbia, Canada. After flowing a path for 1,270 miles, the Columbia joins the Pacific Ocean near Astoria, Oregon. The major tributaries of the Columbia are the Kootenai, Flathead/Pend Oreille/Clark's Fork, Snake, and Willamette. The largest of these tributaries, the Snake, travels 1,038 miles from its source in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. The Snake River enters the Columbia at Columbia River Mile 325, near Pasco, Washington. On May 12, 1792, the American Captain Robert Gray, became the first explorer to enter the Columbia River by crossing over the sandbar that blocked its mouth. Gray sailed about 20 miles up the estuary of the river, traded with the Indians for a few days, and then left after drawing a chart of the mouth of the river. He named the river the Columbia after his ship, and claimed it for the United States. British Captain George Vancouver obtained a copy of Gray's chart from the Spanish governor at Nootka Sound and sailed to the mouth of the Columbia River in October 1792. He was unable to get his flagship Discovery over the sandbar, but Lt. William Robert Broughton succeeded with his smaller ship, the Chatham. Broughton advanced nearly 100 miles to a site opposite present-day Portland, Oregon, which he named Point Vancouver. To the east he saw a majestic mountain peak which he named Mount Hood. -- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2002, and University of Virginia Library Special Collections Website, 2002


Map, 1798, Columbia River of George Vancouver, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Willow Creek to Walla Walla, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Horse Heaven Hills Image, 2003, Sacajawea State Park
  1. 1798 Map, Columbia River of George Vancouver (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Columbia River, Cape Disappointment, Point Adams, Point Vancouver, and Mount St. Helens. Original Map: George Vancouver's "A Chart Shewing Part of the Coast of N.W. America." In A Voyage of discovery to the North Pacific ocean, and Round the World. London, 1798. University of Virginia Special Collection "Lewis & Clark, The Maps of Exploration 1507-1814". -- University of Virginia Library Archives Website, 2004
  2. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows the Columbia River from Deer Island (left) to the junction with the Snake River ("Lewis's River", right). From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  3. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  4. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Horse Heaven Hills area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Horse Heaven Hills ("lands destitute of timber"), Willow Creek, Umatilla River, Walla Walla River, Touchet River, Twin Sisters ("Chimney Rock"), Yakima River, and the junction of the Snake River (only the "S" shows) with the Columbia. Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  5. 2003, Looking across the Columbia River towards Horse Heaven Hills. (Click to enlarge). Image taken from Sacajawea State Park. Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.
  6. 2003, Columbia River, looking upstream from Sacajawea State Park, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Snake River, looking upstream from Sacajawea State Park, 2003

Snake River:
The Snake River originates in Yellowstone National Park at 9,500 feet and winds through southern Idaho before turning north to form the boundary between Idaho and Oregon. It finally joins the Columbia River at Mile 325 near Pasco, Washington, 1,036 miles from its source. Elevation at the confluence is 340 feet. How did it get its name? To identify themselves, Indians living along the river in southern Idaho used a hand sign that resembled the movement of a snake. Although it didn't mean "Snake", that name was given to this group of people, now known as Shoshone. The river flowing through the Snake Indian lands was given the tribal name. -- U.S. National Park Service, Wild and Scenic Rivers Website, 2002, and Idaho State Parks and Recreation Website, 2002


Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Willow Creek to Walla Walla, click to enlarge Image, Snake River, Washington, click to enlarge Image, ca.1900, Steamer on the Snake River, near Asotin, Washington, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Snake River from Sacajawea State Park
  1. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows the Snake River ("Lewis's River") from Canoe Camp (right) to its junction with the Columbia River (left). From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  2. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  3. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Horse Heaven Hills area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Horse Heaven Hills ("lands destitute of timber"), Willow Creek, Umatilla River, Walla Walla River, Touchet River, Twin Sisters ("Chimney Rock"), Yakima River, and the junction of the Snake River (only the "S" shows) with the Columbia. Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  4. An arid region along the Snake River, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Photograph Date: between 1891 and 1936. Photographer: unknown. American Environmental Photographs Collection #AEP-WAS141, Department of Special Collections, University of Chicago Library. -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2002
  5. ca.1900, Steamer on the Snake River, near Asotin, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Steam rises from atop the 'Lewiston' steamboat as it passes Asotin, Washington, approximately 8 miles downstream of the confluence of the Clearwater River and the Snake River. Photographer: Wilkin Photo Service, Lewiston, Idaho. Photograph date: ca. 1900. Washington State University Libraries Archives, #11108 -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  6. 2003, Snake River, looking upstream from Sacajawea State Park, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Soon after proceeding, We passed the island in the mouth of Lewis river [Snake River], and at eight miles reached a larger island, which extends three miles in length. On going down by this island there is another on the right, which commences about the middle of it, and continues for three and a half miles. While they continue parallel to each other, they occasion a rapid near the lower extremity of the first island, opposite to which on the second island are nine lodges built of mats, and intended for the accommodation of the fishermen, of whom we saw great numbers, and vast quantities of dried fish on their scaffolds. [These Islands are most likely Rabbit Island and Goat Island, now under the waters of Lake Wallula.]


Along the Journey - October 18, 1805
Islands at the Mouth:
Today the islands are under the waters of Lake Wallula, the reservoir behind McNary Dam.


Map, 1858 Military recon map, Snake River entering the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1987, Snake River confluence with the Columbia River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River and the junction of the Snake River, click to enlarge
  1. 1858 Military Recon Map (section of original), Snake River entering the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Map of military reconnaissance from Fort Dalles, Oregon, via Fort Wallah-Wallah, to Fort Taylor, Washington Territory, 1858. Shows approximate location of military road constructed 1859 to 1862. From the report and maps of Captain John Mullan, United States Army, G.P.O., 1863. University of Washington Archives #UW85. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  2. 1987 Map, Snake River confluence with the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Sacajawea State Park. Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Juniper to Pasco, 1987, Chart#18542, 1:20,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  3. 1994, NASA Image, Closer-in view Columbia River and the junction of the Snake River (section of original) (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River and the Snake River, north-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-093. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002


On reaching the lower point of the island, we landed to examine a bad rapid, and then undertook the passage which is very difficult, as the channel lies between two small islands, with two others still smaller near the left side of the river. Here are two Indian houses, the inhabitants of the river. Here are two Indian houses, the inhabitants of which were as usual drying fish. We passed the rapid without injury, and fourteen and a half miles from the mouth of Lewis's river [Snake River], came to an island near the right shore, on which were two other houses of Indians pursuing the customary occupation.
"... we proceeded on down the great Calumbia River which is now verry wide about 3/4 of a mile in General the country in general Smooth plains for about 10 miles down then the barron hills make close to the River on each Side. passed Several Smooth Islands on which was large fishing Camps. large quantity of Sammon on their Scaffels. ..." [Ordway, October 18, 1805]

The entire east bank of the Columbia, from downstream the Snake River to the Walla River, is now a part of the McNary National Wildlife Refuge.


Along the Journey - October 18, 1805
McNary National Wildlife Refuge:
The McNary National Wildlife Refuge spans the east bank of the Columbia from the Snake River to the Wallula Gap. The Refuge now has 7 Units: Strawberry Island, Burbank Slough (original McNary NWR), Peninsula, Two Rivers, Wallula, Stateline, and Juniper Canyon. Originally established at 3,600 acres, the Refuge now encompasses over 15,000 acres of backwater sloughs, seasonal wetlands, shrub-steppe uplands, irrigated farmlands, river islands, delta mudflats, and riparian areas. The Refuge also includes riverine wetlands and shoreline bays that serve as an important nursery for developing fall chinook salmon. The Refuge has trails, wildlife viewing, and an education center. and is located southeast of Pasco off U.S. Highway 12 just south of the Snake River. Refuge Visitor facilities are a quarter mile east of Highway 12 on Maple Street. -- Lewis and Clark Bicentennial in Oregon Website, 2002, and U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Website, 2002


One mile and a half beyond this place, is a mouth of a small brook [Walla Walla River]. under a high hill on the left. It seems to run during its whole course through the high country, which at this place begins,


Along the Journey - October 18, 1805
Walla Walla River, 2003

Walla Walla River:
The Walla Walla River basin lies between the Snake River basin on the north, the Blue Mountains to the east and south, and the Umatilla River basin on the south and west. The basin includes parts of Walla Walla and Columbia counties in Washington and part of Umatilla County in Oregon, and covers 1,720 square miles. The basin is approximately 55 miles long by 52 miles wide, with elevations ranging from a high of 6,250 feet to a low of 340 feet. It is located near the boundary between the Blue Mountains (south and southeast) and Columbia River Plateau (north and northwest) physiographic regions. Regional folding around the basin boundary and faulting formed the Walla Walla basin. The major rock underlying the basin is the Miocene Age (15 to 20 million years ago) Columbia River Basalt Group, which consists of a thick sequence of lava flows known to be in excess of 6,000 feet thick near Pasco. Individual flows generally range from approximately 50 to over 150 feet. Unconsolidated gravels and clays overlie the basalt. An extensive deposit of windblown silt (loess soil) called the Palouse Formation covers most of the Walla Walla River basin. This formation eroded and resulted in the gently rolling hills that are typical of the region. The Walla Walla River itself originates in the northeast corner of Umatilla County in Oregon. It dips south from there and then flows north through Milton-Freewater, crossing the Oregon/Washington border 6 miles north of Milton-Freewater. The principle tributaries of the Walla Walla include the Touchet River, Mill Creek, and the North and South Forks of the Walla Walla River. -- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Website, Walla Walla District, 2004, Washington State Department of Ecology Website, 2004, and Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Website, 2004


Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1833, Illman and Pilbrow, Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Willow Creek to Walla Walla, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Clearwater and Snake from Canoe Camp to the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1858 Military recon map, mouth of the Walla Walla River, click to enlarge Map, 1863, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Touchet Rivers, etc., click to enlarge Map, 1893, Columbia, Snake, and Walla Walla Rivers, click to enlarge Map, 1918 USGS topo map of Walla Walla River area, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River from Crow Butte to the Snake River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River and the junction of the Walla Walla River, click to enlarge Engraving, 1853, Old Fort Walla Walla, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Walla Walla River
  1. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows the Walla Walla River ("Wollawwollah R."). From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  2. 1833 Map (section of original), Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Includes Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson. Note: Mount Baker is depicted (upper middle) but Mounts Adams, Rainier and St. Helens are missing. The Columbia River is shown as "Oregon River" at its mouth and "Columbia or Oregon R." further inland. "Wappatoo Valley" is labeled. Also shows Fort Clatsop ("F. Clatsop or F. George"), the Willamette River ("Multnomah R."), Sandy River ("Quicksand R."), John Day River ("R.La Page"), Walla Walla River ("Wallwullah R."), Snake River ("Lewis R."), and the Yakima River ("Tapete R."). Original Map: Oregon Territory, 1833. Creator: Illman & Pilbrow, published by Illman & Pilbrow, New York. Comments: Illman & Pilbrow is the engraving firm which copyrighted and published this map, the actual artist is unknown. Washington State University Digital Maps Collection #WSU323. University of Washington Digital Maps Collection #UW104. -- Washington State University Early Washington Maps Digital Collection Website, 2004
  3. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  4. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Horse Heaven Hills area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Horse Heaven Hills ("lands destitute of timber"), Willow Creek, Umatilla River, Walla Walla River, Touchet River, Twin Sisters ("Chimney Rock"), Yakima River, and the junction of the Snake River (only the "S" shows) with the Columbia. Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  5. 1855 Map, Clearwater and Snake Rivers, including the Walla Walla River (Wahlah Wahlah R.) (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  6. 1858 Military Recon Map (section of original), Mouth of the Walla Walla River. (Click to enlarge). Map of military reconnaissance from Fort Dalles, Oregon, via Fort Wallah-Wallah, to Fort Taylor, Washington Territory, 1858. Shows approximate location of military road constructed 1859 to 1862. From the report and maps of Captain John Mullan, United States Army, G.P.O., 1863. University of Washington Archives #UW85. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  7. 1863 Map (section of original), Columbia River, Umatilla Rapids, Monumental Rocks, Umatilla River, Walla Walla River, Touchet River, etc. (Click to enlarge). Original map by John Mullan, Julius Bien, and Edward Freyhold, United State Office of Explorations and Surveys. Prepared from field notes from 1858-1863. Scale 1:1,000,000. Original map from: report and maps of Captain John Mullan, United States Army, of his operations while engaged in the construction of a military road from Fort Walla-Walla, on the Columbia River, to Fort Benton, on the Missouri River, 1863. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  8. 1893 Map part of the Columbia River showing junctions with the Snake and Walla Walla Rivers (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Part of the Snake River from its mouth to the Grande Ronde, showing location of principal rapids". U.S. Engineers Office, 1893. Washington State University Historical Maps Collection #WSU586. -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  9. 1918 Map (section of original), from Wallula 1:125,000 topographic quadrangle. (Click to enlarge). Original map surveyed in 1915, contour interval of 50 feet. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  10. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River from Crow Butte to the Snake River (section of original) (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River, Snake River, Yakima River, Walla Walla River, Umatilla River, Crow Butte and Wallula Gap, north-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-093. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  11. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River and the junction of the Walla Walla River (section of original) (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River and the Walla Walla River, north-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-093. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  12. 1853 Engraving, Nez Perce camp outside walls of Old Fort Walla Walla on the Columbia River, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Engraving by John M. Stanley, 1853. From: University of Washington Library Collection #NA4169. Original from U.S. War Department's Reports of explorations and surveys to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, 1860, v.12, pt.1, pl.42. -- University of Washington Library Collection Website, 2002
  13. 2003, Walla Walla River near confluence with the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


and rising to the height of two hundred feet form cliffs of rugged black rocks which project a considerable distance into the river [Wallula Gap].
"... at 16 miles from the point the river passes into the range of high Countrey at which place the rocks project into the river from the high clifts which is on the Lard. Side about 2/3 of the way across and those of the Stard. Side about the Same distance, the Countrey rises here about 200 feet above The water and is bordered with black rugid rocks, at the Commencement of this high Countrey on Lard Side a Small riverlet falls in which appears to passed under the high Country in its whole cose ..." [Clark, October 18, 1805]


Along the Journey - October 18, 1805
Wallula Gap, 2003

Wallula Gap:
Glacial-outburst waters which crossed the Channeled Scablands during the Missoula Floods were channeled through Wallula Gap. For several weeks, as much as 200 cubic miles of water per day were delivered to a gap that could discharge less than 40 cubic miles per day. Ponded water filled the Pasco Basin and the Yakima and Touchet valleys to form temporary Lake Lewis. -- U.S. National Park Service, National Natural Landmarks Program Website, 2002


Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Willow Creek to Walla Walla, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River from Crow Butte to the Snake River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River and Wallula Gap, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Wallula Gap
  1. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows the Columbia River running through a ridge of mountains (vertically-running, right), the location of the Wallula Gap. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  2. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Wallula Gap area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Horse Heaven Hills ("lands destitute of timber"), Willow Creek, Umatilla River, Walla Walla River, Touchet River, Twin Sisters ("Chimney Rock"), Yakima River, and the junction of the Snake River (only the "S" shows) with the Columbia. Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  3. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River from Crow Butte to the Snake River (section of original) (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River, Snake River, Yakima River, Walla Walla River, Umatilla River, Crow Butte and Wallula Gap, north-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-093. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  4. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River and Wallula Gap (section of original) (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River, Snake River, Lake Wallula, and the Wallula Gap, north-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-093. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  5. 2003, Wallula Gap, from downstream, looking towards Port Kelley. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Prominent Lava Flows seen from Wallula Gap vicinity:
Horse Heaven Hills anticline sections show excellent exposures of the thick Frenchman Springs member overlain by the Umatilla Member of the Saddle Mountains Basalt -- the Roza and Priest Rapids Members are missing. A Martindale flow caps the highest visible point west of the river; it overlies imbricated Snake River gravel, compositionally similar to that at Lower Monumental Dam, showing that an ancestral Wallula Gap existed at least 8.5 million years ago. The Saddle Mountains Basalt formation is the youngest in the Columbia River Basalt Group. It is about 13.5 to 6 million years old and contains flows erupted sporadically during a period of waning volcanism, deformation, canyon cutting, and development of thick but local sedimentary deposits between flows. The Saddle Mountains Basalt has a volume of only about 700 cubic miles, less than one percent of the total volume of basalt, yet contains by far the greatest chemical and isotopic diversity of any formation in the group. -- Swanson and Wright, 1981



On the left bank of the Columbia River, within the Wallula Gap, lies a basalt feature known as the "Twin Sisters".


Along the Journey - October 18, 1805
Etching detail, Twin Sisters, 1853

Twin Sisters:
A natural Native American monument overlooks the Columbia River two miles southwest from Wallula Junction on Highway 730. The Twin Sisters are actually two basalt pillars (Frenchman Springs) which were formed by the Missoula Floods about 15,000 years ago. The Twin Sisters are from a single lava flow that stood up to the ravages of the floodwaters, which completely surrounded and submerged them. Apparently the basalt here is slightly harder and/or more resistant to erosion than the basalt around them. Cayuse legend has it that Coyote, an animal spirit, turned two beautiful sisters to stone in a rage of jealousy. There is a nice pullout from Highway 730 with a new sign by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers that describes the legend and the surrounding area. -- Walla Walla Chamber of Commerce Website, 2002, Lewis and Clark Bicentennial in Oregon Website, 2002, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Website, 2002, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Website, 2003


Map, 1854, Columbia River, Willow Creek to Walla Walla, click to enlarge Map, 1987, Twin Sisters and Port Kelley, Washington, click to enlarge Engraving, 1845, Twin Sisters, click to enlarge Engraving, 1853, Old Fort Walla Walla, click to enlarge
  1. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Wallula Gap area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Horse Heaven Hills ("lands destitute of timber"), Willow Creek, Umatilla River, Walla Walla River, Touchet River, Twin Sisters ("Chimney Rock"), Yakima River, and the junction of the Snake River (only the "S" shows) with the Columbia. Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  2. 1987 Map, Twin Sisters and Port Kelley, Washington (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Juniper to Pasco, 1987, Chart#18542, 1:20,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  3. 1845 Engraving, Columbia River and Twin Sisters. (Click to enlarge). Caption reads: "Hill of Columnar Basalt on the Columbia River". Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Special Collections, #V978.02F886r1845. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Libarary Website, 2004
  4. 1853 Engraving, Nez Perce camp outside walls of Old Fort Walla Walla on the Columbia River, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Engraving by John M. Stanley, 1853. From: University of Washington Library Collection #NA4169. Original from U.S. War Department's Reports of explorations and surveys to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, 1860, v.12, pt.1, pl.42. -- University of Washington Library Collection Website, 2002


At this place too we observed a mountain to the S. W. the form of which is conical, and its top covered with snow [Mount Hood].
"... Saw a mountain bearing S. W. Conocal form Covered with Snow. ..." [Clark, October 18, 1805]


Along the Journey - October 18, 1805
Map, Columbia River including Mount Hood, 1860

Mount Hood:
Mount Hood, at 11,245 feet high, is the fourth highest peak in the Cascade Range and the highest in the state of Oregon. The peak dominates the skyline from the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area to the wheat fields of Wasco and Sherman Counties of eastern Oregon. It is just visible along this stretch of the river.


Map, the Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1993, Mount Hood and Vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Vancouver to the Pacific, click to enlarge Map, 1860, Columbia River, Washington, Oregon, click to enlarge Image, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Timberline, click to enlarge
  1. Map, "Lewis and Clark Volcano Sitings"
  2. 1993 Map, Mount Hood and Vicinity, showing river drainages which flow into the Columbia river. (Click to enlarge). Includes Hood River and the Sandy River. Map modified from: Brantley and Scott, 1993.
  3. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows Mount Hood. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  4. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  5. 1855 Map, Columbia River from Vancouver to the Pacific, including Mount St. Helens (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  6. 1860 Map, Columbia River, Washington State, and Oregon (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: Map of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, (1860). This map dates between March 2nd, 1861 (when the Dakota Territory was formed) and March 4th, 1863 (when the Idaho Territory was formed from eastern Washington and western Dakota) Nearing retirement from a thirty year long and rather successful career, S. Augustus Mitchell printed this map showcasing Oregon, the Territory of Washington, and British Columbia. Washington became a territory in 1853, arguing that distances to Willamette Valley kept them from obtaining a voice in the Oregon territorial government. As this map shows, when it split from Oregon proper the Washington territory included parts of Wyoming and Montana and all of Idaho. Territorial government for Idaho would not be approved until 1863. When Mitchell retired he left the business for his son to manage. Washington State University Archives #WSU7. -- Washington State University Archives, 2004
  7. Image, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Timberline parking lot. (Click to enlarge). Photographer: Lyn Topinka. -- USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory Photo Archives, 2004


We followed the river as it entered these highlands, and at the distance of two miles reached three islands, one on each side of the river, and a third in the middle, on which were two houses, where the Indians were drying fish opposite a small rapid. Near these a fourth island begins, close to the right shore, where were nine lodges of Indians, all employed with their fish. As we passed they called to us to land, but as night was coming on, and there was no appearance of wood in the neighbourhood, we went on about a mile further, till observing a log that had drifted down the river, we landed near it on the left side, and formed our camp under a high hill [near Port Kelley and Spring Gulch Creek], after having made twenty miles today.


Along the Journey - October 18, 1805
Port Kelley, Spring gulch, and Wallula Gap, 2003

Port Kelley and Spring Gulch:
Port Kelley is on the East side of the Columbia River, 16 miles above McNary Dam. Lewis and Clark's campsite of October 18, 1805 was located about 1 miles downstream from Port Kelley. Today the location of the campsite is under the waters of Lake Wallula, behind McNary Dam. -- NOAA, Office of Coast Survey Website, 2003, and Fort Walla Walla Museum Website, 2003


Map, 1918 USGS topo map of Walla Walla River and Spring Gulch area, click to enlarge Map, 1987, Port Kelley and Spring Gulch, Washington, click to enlarge Map, 1987, Port Kelley and Spring Gulch, Washington, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River from Crow Butte to the Snake River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River, including Umatilla River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River and Spring Gulch, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1941, Port Kelley, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Port Kelley and Spring Gulch
  1. 1918 Map (section of original), from Wallula 1:125,000 topographic quadrangle. (Click to enlarge). Original map surveyed in 1915, contour interval of 50 feet. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  2. 1987 Map, Port Kelley and Spring Gulch, Washington (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Juniper to Pasco, 1987, Chart#18542, 1:20,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  3. 1987 Map, Port Kelley and Spring Gulch, Washington (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Juniper to Pasco, 1987, Chart#18542, 1:20,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  4. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River from Crow Butte to the Snake River (section of original) (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River, Snake River, Yakima River, Walla Walla River, Umatilla River, Crow Butte and Wallula Gap, north-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-093. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  5. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River from McNary to Spring Gulch (section of original) (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River, McNary Dam, Umatilla River, Sillusi Butte vicinity, Juniper Canyon, and Spring Gulch, north-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-093. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  6. 1994, NASA Image, Closer-in view Columbia River, Walla Walla River, and Spring Gulch (section of original) (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River, Wallula Gap, Walla Walla River, and Spring Gulch, north-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. McNary Dam is in the lower left corner. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-093. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  7. 1941, Image, Port Kelly on the Columbia River, Walla Walla, Washington (Click to enlarge). Bulk wheat belonging to members of the Walla Walla Grain Growers is shipped from this point to Portland. American Library of Congress American Memories Archives #LC-USF34- 039901-D, Photographer: Lee Russell, July, 1941, Farm Security Administration, Office of War Information Photograph Collection, Library of Congress. -- Library of Congress Website, 2004
  8. 2003, Port Kelley, Spring Gulch, and Wallula Gap. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Along the Journey - October 18, 1805
The Camp:
Lewis and Clark's campsite of October 18, 1805 was located about 1 mile downstream from Port Kelley, Washington, near Spring Gulch Creek. Today the location of the campsite is under the waters of Lake Wallula, behind McNary Dam.



 
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June/July 2004, Lyn Topinka
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