Link to USGS home page.
USGS HOME
Contact USGS

  • Assess
  • Prepare
  • Forecast
  • |
  • Activity
  • Products
  • Observatories
  • About

The Volcanoes of
Lewis and Clark
October 17, 1805
Side-Trip Up the Columbia River - Tri-Cities and the Yakima River
 
Home
The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark

Map of the Journey
Volcanoes, Basalt Plateaus, Major Rivers, etc.

The Volcanoes
Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, Mount Rainier, and Mount St. Helens

CALENDAR of the Journey
October 1805 to June 1806

Along the Journey
Pacific Northwest Maps - Columbia River, Volcanoes, Flood Basalts, Missoula Floods, Geology, etc.

The Corps of Discovery
The Journey of Lewis and Clark

About the Reference Materials
The Journals, Biddle/Allen, DeVoto, Gass, Moulton, Topo Maps, and others

USGS Lewis and Clark Links
Links to USGS Websites highlighting the Lewis and Clark Journey

Resources
Publications Referenced and Websites Visited


PREVIOUS

October 16
Reaching the "Great Columbia", Snake/Columbia Confluence
October 17

Side-Trip Up the Columbia,
Tri-Cities and the Yakima River

Junction of the Snake River with the Columbia River, Columbia River, Snake River, Horse Heaven Hills, Blue Mountains, Yakima River, Up the Columbia, Clover Island and the Pasco-Kennewick Bridges, Bateman Island, Sacajawea State Park
CONTINUE

October 18
Down the "Great Columbia", Snake/Columbia Confluence to Spring Gulch
 

On October 7, 1805, Lewis and Clark and the "Corps of Discovery" began their journey down the Clearwater River and into the volcanics of the Pacific Northwest. The Corps travelled from the Clearwater to the Snake and down the "Great Columbia", finally reaching the Pacific Ocean on November 15, 1805. Along the journey they encountered the lava flows of the Columbia Plateau, river channels carved by the great "Missoula Floods", and the awesome beauty of five Cascade Range volcanoes.

Map, Lewis and Clark in the Pacific Northwest, click for brief
                         summary
[Click map for brief summary about the area]


 
To the Pacific - October 1805
Side-Trip Up the Columbia River - Tri-Cities and the Yakima River
 

Lewis and Clark's camp of October 16 and 17, 1805, was at the confluence of the Snake and Columbia Rivers, just east of Pasco, Washington. Today Sacajawea State Park is located at this junction. The original campsite is now under the waters of Lake Wallula, behind McNary Dam. On October 17, Captain Clark takes a journey of 10 miles, reaching Bateman Island, the furthest upstream on the Columbia River the Lewis and Clark expedition visited.

Thursday, October 17, 1805
The day being fair we were occupied in making the necessary observations for determining our longitude, and obtained a meridian altitude, from which it appeared that we were in latitude 46o 15' 13";. We also measured the two rivers by angles, and found that at the junction the Columbia [Columbia River] is nine hundred and sixty yards wide, and Lewis's river [Snake River] five hundred and seventy-five; but soon after they unite, the former widens to the space of from one to three miles, including the islands.


Along the Journey - October 17, 1805
NASA photo, Snake River confluence with the Columbia River, 1994

Junction of the Snake River with the Columbia River:
The Snake River joins the Columbia River at River Mile 325, near Pasco, Washington. Lewis and Clark spent two nights camped at the junction, a spot known today as Sacajawea State Park.


Map, the Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Willow Creek to Walla Walla, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Clearwater and Snake from Canoe Camp to the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1858 Military recon map, Snake River entering the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1882, Snake River at Confluence with the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1893, Snake River showing Fish Hook Rapids, click to enlarge Map, 1987, Snake River confluence with the Columbia River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River from Crow Butte to the Snake River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River and the confluence of the Snake River, click to enlarge
  1. Map, Junction Snake River with the Columbia River (#9), October 16, 1805
  2. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows the junction of the Snake River ("Lewis's River", right) with the Columbia River (running through middle of map). From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  3. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  4. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Horse Heaven Hills area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Horse Heaven Hills ("lands destitute of timber"), Willow Creek, Umatilla River, Walla Walla River, Touchet River, Twin Sisters ("Chimney Rock"), Yakima River, and the junction of the Snake River (only the "S" shows) with the Columbia. Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  5. 1855 Map, Clearwater and Snake Rivers, including the Confluence of the Snake River (Lewis Fork) and Columbia River (not named) (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  6. 1858 Military Recon Map (section of original), Snake River entering the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Map of military reconnaissance from Fort Dalles, Oregon, via Fort Wallah-Wallah, to Fort Taylor, Washington Territory, 1858. Shows approximate location of military road constructed 1859 to 1862. From the report and maps of Captain John Mullan, United States Army, G.P.O., 1863. University of Washington Archives #UW85. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  7. 1882 Map, Snake River Confluence with the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of the Upper Columbia River from the international boundary line to Snake River, on a scale of one inch to two miles, 1882, Sheet 25." U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1882. Washington State University Historical Maps Collection #WSU505. -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  8. 1893 Map, part of the Snake River showing location of principal rapids (section of original). Includes Fish Hook Rapids. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Part of the Snake River from its mouth to the Grande Ronde, showing location of principal rapids". U.S. Engineers Office, 1893. Washington State University Historical Maps Collection #WSU586. -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  9. 1987 Map, Snake River confluence with the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Sacajawea State Park. Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Juniper to Pasco, 1987, Chart#18542, 1:20,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  10. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River from Crow Butte to the Snake River (section of original) (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River, Snake River, Yakima River, Walla Walla River, Umatilla River, Crow Butte and Wallula Gap, north-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-093. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  11. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River and the junction of the Snake River (section of original) (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River and the Snake River, north-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-093. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002



Columbia River, looking upstream, from Sacajawea State Park, 2003

Columbia River:
The Columbia River and its tributaries form the dominant water system in the Pacific Northwest. The mainstem of the Columbia rises in Columbia Lake in British Columbia, Canada. After flowing a path for 1,270 miles, the Columbia joins the Pacific Ocean near Astoria, Oregon. The major tributaries of the Columbia are the Kootenai, Flathead/Pend Oreille/Clark's Fork, Snake, and Willamette. The largest of these tributaries, the Snake, travels 1,038 miles from its source in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. The Snake River enters the Columbia at Columbia River Mile 325, near Pasco, Washington. On May 12, 1792, the American Captain Robert Gray, became the first explorer to enter the Columbia River by crossing over the sandbar that blocked its mouth. Gray sailed about 20 miles up the estuary of the river, traded with the Indians for a few days, and then left after drawing a chart of the mouth of the river. He named the river the Columbia after his ship, and claimed it for the United States. British Captain George Vancouver obtained a copy of Gray's chart from the Spanish governor at Nootka Sound and sailed to the mouth of the Columbia River in October 1792. He was unable to get his flagship Discovery over the sandbar, but Lt. William Robert Broughton succeeded with his smaller ship, the Chatham. Broughton advanced nearly 100 miles to a site opposite present-day Portland, Oregon, which he named Point Vancouver. To the east he saw a majestic mountain peak which he named Mount Hood. -- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2002, and University of Virginia Library Special Collections Website, 2002


Map, 1798, Columbia River of George Vancouver, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Willow Creek to Walla Walla, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Horse Heaven Hills Image, 2003, Sacajawea State Park
  1. 1798 Map, Columbia River of George Vancouver (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Columbia River, Cape Disappointment, Point Adams, Point Vancouver, and Mount St. Helens. Original Map: George Vancouver's "A Chart Shewing Part of the Coast of N.W. America." In A Voyage of discovery to the North Pacific ocean, and Round the World. London, 1798. University of Virginia Special Collection "Lewis & Clark, The Maps of Exploration 1507-1814". -- University of Virginia Library Archives Website, 2004
  2. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows the Columbia River from Deer Island (left) to the junction with the Snake River ("Lewis's River", right). From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  3. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  4. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Horse Heaven Hills area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Horse Heaven Hills ("lands destitute of timber"), Willow Creek, Umatilla River, Walla Walla River, Touchet River, Twin Sisters ("Chimney Rock"), Yakima River, and the junction of the Snake River (only the "S" shows) with the Columbia. Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  5. 2003, Looking across the Columbia River towards Horse Heaven Hills. (Click to enlarge). Image taken from Sacajawea State Park. Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.
  6. 2003, Columbia River, looking upstream from Sacajawea State Park, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Snake River, looking upstream from Sacajawea State Park, 2003

Snake River:
The Snake River originates in Yellowstone National Park at 9,500 feet and winds through southern Idaho before turning north to form the boundary between Idaho and Oregon. It finally joins the Columbia River at Mile 325 near Pasco, Washington, 1,036 miles from its source. Elevation at the confluence is 340 feet. How did it get its name? To identify themselves, Indians living along the river in southern Idaho used a hand sign that resembled the movement of a snake. Although it didn't mean "Snake", that name was given to this group of people, now known as Shoshone. The river flowing through the Snake Indian lands was given the tribal name. -- U.S. National Park Service, Wild and Scenic Rivers Website, 2002, and Idaho State Parks and Recreation Website, 2002


Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Snake, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Willow Creek to Walla Walla, click to enlarge Image, Snake River, Washington, click to enlarge Image, ca.1900, Steamer on the Snake River, near Asotin, Washington, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Snake River from Sacajawea State Park
  1. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows the Snake River ("Lewis's River") from Canoe Camp (right) to it's junction with the Columbia River (left). From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  2. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  3. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Horse Heaven Hills area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Horse Heaven Hills ("lands destitute of timber"), Willow Creek, Umatilla River, Walla Walla River, Touchet River, Twin Sisters ("Chimney Rock"), Yakima River, and the junction of the Snake River (only the "S" shows) with the Columbia. Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  4. An arid region along the Snake River, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Photograph Date: between 1891 and 1936. Photographer: unknown. American Environmental Photographs Collection #AEP-WAS141, Department of Special Collections, University of Chicago Library. -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2002
  5. ca.1900, Steamer on the Snake River, near Asotin, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Steam rises from atop the 'Lewiston' steamboat as it passes Asotin, Washington, approximately 8 miles downstream of the confluence of the Clearwater River and the Snake River. Photographer: Wilkin Photo Service, Lewiston, Idaho. Photograph date: ca. 1900. Washington State University Libraries Archives, #11108 -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  6. 2003, Snake River, looking upstream from Sacajawea State Park, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


From the point of junction the country is a continued plain, which is low near the water, from which it rises gradually, and the only elevation to be seen is a range of high country [Horse Heaven Hills] running from the northeast towards the southwest,


Along the Journey - October 17, 1805
Horse Heaven Hills, 2003

Horse Heaven Hills:
Like all the ridges that surround the Tri-Cities and lower Columbia Basin (Richland, Pasco, and Kennewick), the geology of the Horse Heaven Hills is a story of lava eruptions followed by buckling of the lava flows as they were squeezed from the north and south. The Columbia Plateau province is dominated by lavas of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), which include the Grande Ronde, Wanapum, and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The basalt occurs as multiple flows, each ranging in thickness from 10 to over 100 feet. After the lavas hardened into rock, earth forces, which still operate today, compressed the region from the north and south. The rock responded by buckling into a series of ridges that trend mainly east-west. Rattlesnake Mountain, Badger Mountain, Red Mountain and the Horse Heaven Hills are some of the more familiar names of these ridges. Rattlesnake Mountain and the Horse Heaven Hills are higher than most of the ridges around here but when you take a close look at any of these ridges, the higher elevations typically are on the north side. The north side is highest because its the point where the rocks change from a north facing slope to a south facing slope. -- Morace, et.al., 1998, Steve Reidel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Swanson and Wright, 1981


Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark and the Horse Heaven Hills, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Willow Creek to Walla Walla, click to enlarge Map, 1907, Columbia River and the Horse Heaven Hills, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Horse Heaven Hills
  1. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) The Horse Heaven Hills are depicted but not named (vertical-running ridge, right half). From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  2. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Horse Heaven Hills area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Horse Heaven Hills ("lands destitute of timber"), Willow Creek, Umatilla River, Walla Walla River, Touchet River, Twin Sisters ("Chimney Rock"), Yakima River, and the junction of the Snake River (only the "S" shows) with the Columbia. Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  3. 1907 Map, Columbia River, Horse Heaven Hills (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Birdseye view map of Yakima Valley and Central Washington", 1907, by Edward Lange, Published by Legh Freeman. Washington State University Libraries Special Collections #wsu321. -- Washington State University Archives, 2003
  4. 2003, Horse Heaven Hills from across the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Image taken from Sacajawea State Park. Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


where it joins a range of mountains [Blue Mountains] from the southwest, and is on the opposite side about two miles from the Columbia. There is through this plain no tree and scarcely any shrub, except a few willow bushes; and even of smaller plants there is not much more than the prickly pear, which is in great abundance, and is even more thorny and troublesome than any we have yet seen. ......


Along the Journey - October 17, 1805
Blue Mountains, 1998

Blue Mountains:
The topography of the Blue Mountains consists of flat-topped ridges and steep stair-stepped valley walls formed by thousands of feet of Miocene basalt flows that engulfed the folded, faulted, and uplifted granitic core of the mountains. As mountains were uplifted, streams and glaciers carved canyons through the basalt layers. -- Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Website, 2004


Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Snake, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Clearwater and Snake from Canoe Camp to the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1881, Snake, Clearwater, Grande Ronde, Salmon, click to enlarge Engraving, 1876, 'Birds eye view' of Walla Walla and the Blue Mountains, click to enlarge Image, 1998, Blue Mountains, click to enlarge
  1. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) The Blue Mountains are depicted but not named (horizontally-running ridge, lower half left). From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  2. 1855 Map, Clearwater and Snake Rivers, including the Blue Mountains (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  3. 1881 Map, Snake, Clearwater, Grande Ronde, and Salmon Rivers (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of the Grande Ronde Wallowa and Imnaha Country, 1881". Map section shows the Snake River (name doesn't show), "Clear Water" River (central right, tributary to the Snake), Grande Ronde River (lower left, only "de River" shows, tributary to the Snake), Salmon River (lower right, tributary to the Snake) Lewiston, Central Ferry, Alpowai, Dayton, Pataha, and the Blue Mountains. By H. Chandler, Eng., Buffalo, 1881., Washington State University Historical Maps Collection #WSU468. -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  4. 1876 Engraving, "Birds eye view" of Walla Walla, Washington Territory, with the Blue Mountains 9 miles distant. (Click to enlarge). Drawn by E.S. Glover. A.L. Bancroft & Co., lithographers. Perspective map not drawn to scale. "From the west, looking east." Includes index to points of interest and text. -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2002
  5. 1998, Blue Mountains from the Whitman Mission (Click to enlarge). National Park Service, Whitman Mission National Historic Site Negative #cmb-1998-12. -- U.S. National Park Service Website, 2002, Whitman Mission National Historic Site


The nation among which we now are call themselves Sokulks; and with them are united a few of another nation, who reside on a western branch [Yakima River], emptying itself into the Columbia a few miles above the mouth of the latter river, and whose name is Chimnapum. ......
"... there is no timber of any sort except Small willow bushes in sight in any direction. from this Island the natives showed me the enterance of a large Westerly fork which they Call Tapetett at about 8 miles distant ... " [Clark, October 17, 1805]


Along the Journey - October 17, 1805
Yakima River, Umtanum Ridge

Yakima River:
The Yakima River flows 215 miles from the outlet of Keechelus Lake in the central Washington Cascades southeasterly to the Columbia River, draining an area of 6,155 square miles. Altitude in the basin ranges from 340 feet at the mouth of the Yakima River to 8,184 feet near the headwaters. The Yakima River Basin comprises parts of the Columbia Plateau and the Cascade geologic provinces. About two-thirds of the basin, including the entire southern and eastern parts, is in the Columbia Plateau, a province that consists primarily of basalt flows with minor interbedded and overlying sediment. The western and northern margins of the basin are in the Cascade Range. -- USGS Water Resources of Oregon Website, 2002, and Morace, et.al., 1998


Map, 1833, Illman and Pilbrow, Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Willow Creek to Walla Walla, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Walla Walla to Vancouver, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River from Crow Butte to the Snake River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River and the Yakima River, click to enlarge Image, Yakima River and Umtanum Ridge, click to enlarge
  1. 1833 Map (section of original), Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Includes Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson. Note: Mount Baker is depicted (upper middle) but Mounts Adams, Rainier and St. Helens are missing. The Columbia River is shown as "Oregon River" at its mouth and "Columbia or Oregon R." further inland. "Wappatoo Valley" is labeled. Also shows Fort Clatsop ("F. Clatsop or F. George"), the Willamette River ("Multnomah R."), Sandy River ("Quicksand R."), John Day River ("R.La Page"), Walla Walla River ("Wallwullah R."), Snake River ("Lewis R."), and the Yakima River ("Tapete R."). Original Map: Oregon Territory, 1833. Creator: Illman & Pilbrow, published by Illman & Pilbrow, New York. Comments: Illman & Pilbrow is the engraving firm which copyrighted and published this map, the actual artist is unknown. Washington State University Digital Maps Collection #WSU323. University of Washington Digital Maps Collection #UW104. -- Washington State University Early Washington Maps Digital Collection Website, 2004
  2. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  3. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Horse Heaven Hills area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Horse Heaven Hills ("lands destitute of timber"), Willow Creek, Umatilla River, Walla Walla River, Touchet River, Twin Sisters ("Chimney Rock"), Yakima River, and the junction of the Snake River (only the "S" shows) with the Columbia. Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  4. 1855 Map, Columbia River, including the Yakima River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  5. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River from Crow Butte to the Snake River (section of original) (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River, Snake River, Yakima River, Walla Walla River, Umatilla River, Crow Butte and Wallula Gap, north-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-093. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  6. 1994, NASA Image, Closer-in view Columbia River and the junction of the Yakima River (section of original) (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River, Snake River, Yakima River, and Bateman Island north-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-093. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  7. Yakima River in the Umtanum Ridge area. (Click to enlarge). -- USGS Oregon District Website, 2003



Side-Trip Up the Columbia River
Thursday, October 17, 1805 ... Continued
In the course of the day captain Clarke, in a small canoe with two men, ascended the Columbia. At the distance of five miles he passed an island [Clover Island] in the middle of the river, at the head of which is a small and not a dangerous rapid. ......


Along the Journey - October 17, 1805
Map, Clover Island, 1987

Clover Island and the Pasco-Kennewick Bridges:
Clover Island is bordered on both sides by bridges linking Pasco and Kennewick. The first bridge was completed in 1922 is downstream of Clover Island, and since 1990 has been on the National Register of Historical Places (#82004213). This bridge has since been destroyed and replaced by the Pasco-Kennewich "Cable" Bridge. The second bridge, the "Blue" Bridge, was built upstream of Clover Island, and completed in the 1950s. Also called the "Pioneer Memorial Bridge", it was added to the National Register of Historical Places (#02000241) in 2002. -- National Register of Historical Places Website, 2004, 2005, and Washington State Department of Transportation Website, 2003


Map, 1882, Snake River at Confluence with the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1917 USGS topo map of Columbia River near Kennewick and Pasco, click to enlarge Map, 1987, Clover Island, Pasco, Kennewick, click to enlarge Image, ca.1954, Pasco-Kennewick Bridge, click to enlarge
  1. 1882 Map, Snake River Confluence with the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of the Upper Columbia River from the international boundary line to Snake River, on a scale of one inch to two miles, 1882, Sheet 25." U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1882. Washington State University Historical Maps Collection #WSU505. -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  2. 1917 Map (section of original), from Pasco 1:125,000 topographic quadrangle. (Click to enlarge). Original map surveyed in 1904 and 1914, contour interval of 50 feet. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  3. 1987 Map, Clover Island, Pasco, and Kennewick (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes the location of the first Pasco-Kennewick Bridge. Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Juniper to Pasco, 1987, Chart#18542, 1:20,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  4. ca.1954, The 2nd Pasco-Kennewick Bridge across the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Image from the Washington State Department of Transportation Archives 1952-1954 Biennial Report. -- Washington State Department of Transportation Website, 2003


At the distance of four miles from the last island, came to the lower point of another near the left shore where he halted at two large mat houses [Bateman Island]. ......
"... I took two men in a Small Canoe and assended the Columbia river 10 miles to an Island near the Stard. Shore on which two large Mat Lodges of Indians were drying Salmon ..." [Clark, October 17, 1805]


Along the Journey - October 17, 1805
Bateman Island, 2003

Bateman Island:
Called "Riverview Island" in 1917 (see map), Bateman Island is located on the Columbia River between the cities of Richland and Kennewick, Washington. This remarkable island is classified as an urban wildlife viewing area, and has Department of Transportation highway signs use "binocular icons" to identify the area. The island is accessible via a small land-bridge and hard-packed, single-track trails make it easy to hike or mountain-bike the entire island. The island is a riparian habitat that is home to many species of migratory waterfowl, as well as native animal life. Bateman Island marks the furthest point up-river on the Columbia ever explored by the Lewis & Clark expedition. However, as a protected area, collecting, digging or exploring for American Indian artifacts is not allowed. -- Tri-Cities Visitor and Convention Bureau Website, 2002


Map, 1917 USGS topo map of Columbia River near Kennewick, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River from Crow Butte to the Snake River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River and Bateman Island, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Bateman Island, click to enlarge
  1. 1917 Map (section of original), from Pasco 1:125,000 topographic quadrangle. (Click to enlarge). Bateman Island is named "Riverview" on this map. Original map surveyed in 1904 and 1914, contour interval of 50 feet. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  2. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River from Crow Butte to the Snake River (section of original) (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River, Snake River, Yakima River, Walla Walla River, Umatilla River, Crow Butte and Wallula Gap, north-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-093. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  3. 1994, NASA Image, Closer-in view Columbia River and Bateman Island (section of original) (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River, Snake River, Yakima River, and Bateman Island north-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-093. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  4. 2003, Bateman Island on the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Near Richland, Washington. Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


From this island they showed him the entrance of a western branch of the Columbia, called the 'Tapteal' [Yakima River], which as far as could be seen bears nearly west, and empties itself about eight miles above into the Columbia; the general course of which is northwest: towards the southwest a range of highland [Horse Heaven Hills] runs parallel to the river, at the distance of two miles on the left, while on the right side the country is low and covered with the prickly pear, and a weed or plant two or three feet high resembling whins. To the eastward is a range of mountains [Blue Mountains] about fifty or sixty miles distant, which bear north and south; but neither in the low grounds, nor in the highlands is any timber to be seen.
"... from this Island the natives showed me the enterance of a large Westerly fork which they Call Tapetett at about 8 miles distant, the evening being late I deturmined to return to the forks, at which place I reached at Dark. from the point up the Columbia river is N. 83o W. 6 miles to the lower point of an Island near the Lard. Side passed a Island in the middle of the river at 5 miles at the head of which is a rapid, not dangerous on the Lard Side opposit to this rapid is a fishing place ... The Waters of this river is Clear, and a Salmon may be Seen at the deabth of 15 or 20 feet. ..." [Clark, October 17, 1805, early on in narrative, final draft]
"... from those Lodges the natives Showed me the mouth of 'Tap teel' River about 8 miles above on the west Side this western fork appears to beare nearly West, The main Columbia river N W. -- a range of high land to the S W and parralal to the river and at the distance of 2 miles on the Lard. Side, the countrey low on the Stard. Side, and all Coverd. with a weed or plant about 2 & three feet high and resembles the whins. I can proceive a range of mountains to the East which appears to bare N. & South distant about 50 or 60 miles. no wood to be Seen in any derection ..." [Clark, October 17, 1805, later in narrative, final draft]
The evening coming on he determined not to proceed further than the island and therefore returned to camp [Sacajawea State Park, confluence of the Snake River with the Columbia]. ......


Along the Journey - October 17, 1805
Sacajawea State Park, 2003

Sacajawea State Park:
Sacajawea State Park is a 284-acre marine, day-use park at the confluence of the Snake and Columbia rivers. It features 9,100 feet of freshwater shoreline. The area is spread out with a big sky and excellent views of the two rivers as they flow together. The park's lands are sand dunes interspersed with wetland ponds. The park is on the plain of the great Lake Missoula floods, which swept through the area 12,000 years ago. The property was deeded to Washington State Parks in 1931. The park is named for Sacajawea, a Shoshoni Indian woman who traveled with the Lewis and Clark expedition. The park is located on one of the expedition's campsites, used by Lewis and Clark from October 16 to 18, 1805. -- Washington State Parks and Recreation Website, 2002


Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1858 Military recon map, Snake River entering the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1917 USGS topo map of Columbia River near Kennewick and Pasco, click to enlarge Map, 1987, Snake River confluence with the Columbia River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River and the confluence of the Snake River, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Sacajawea State Park
  1. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows the junction of the Snake River ("Lewis's River") with the Columbia River (left). From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  2. 1858 Military Recon Map (section of original), Snake River entering the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Map of military reconnaissance from Fort Dalles, Oregon, via Fort Wallah-Wallah, to Fort Taylor, Washington Territory, 1858. Shows approximate location of military road constructed 1859 to 1862. From the report and maps of Captain John Mullan, United States Army, G.P.O., 1863. University of Washington Archives #UW85. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  3. 1917 Map (section of original), from Pasco 1:125,000 topographic quadrangle. (Click to enlarge). Sacajawea State Park, while not named on the map, is located at the junction of the Snake River with the Columbia River (triangle tip, below "Ainsworth Junc." words). Original map surveyed in 1904 and 1914, contour interval of 50 feet. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  4. 1987 Map, Snake River confluence with the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Sacajawea State Park. Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Juniper to Pasco, 1987, Chart#18542, 1:20,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  5. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River and the junction of the Snake River (section of original), Sacajawea State Park is on the "point" (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River and the Snake River, north-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-093. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  6. 2003, Sacajawea State Park from across the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Along the Journey - October 17, 1805
The Camp - October 16 and 17, 1805:
Lewis and Clark's camp of October 16 and 17, 1805, was at the confluence of the Snake and Columbia Rivers at what is now known as Sacajawea State Park just outside Pasco, Washington, on U.S. Route 12 heading towards Walla Walla. The original campsite is now under the waters of Lake Wallula, behind McNary Dam.



 
Home Previous Continue


If you have questions or comments please contact: GS-CVO-WEB@usgs.gov
June/July 2004, Lyn Topinka
The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark Home Page | CVO Home Page