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The Volcanoes of
Lewis and Clark
April 22, 1806
Up the Columbia - Deschutes to the John Day
 
Home
The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark

Map of the Journey
Volcanoes, Basalt Plateaus, Major Rivers, etc.

The Volcanoes
Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, Mount Rainier, and Mount St. Helens

CALENDAR of the Journey
October 1805 to June 1806

Along the Journey
Pacific Northwest Maps - Columbia River, Volcanoes, Flood Basalts, Missoula Floods, Geology, etc.

The Corps of Discovery
The Journey of Lewis and Clark

About the Reference Materials
The Journals, Biddle/Allen, DeVoto, Gass, Moulton, Topo Maps, and others

USGS Lewis and Clark Links
Links to USGS Websites highlighting the Lewis and Clark Journey

Resources
Publications Referenced and Websites Visited


PREVIOUS

April 21
Up the Columbia, Celilo Falls to the Deschutes
April 22

Up the Columbia,
Deschutes to the John Day

Haystack Butte and the Columbia Hills, Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson, Deschutes River, Deschutes River State Recreation Area, Five-Mile Rapids and U.S. Highway 97 Bridge, Maryhill Museum, Maryhill State Park and Stonehenge Memorial, John Day Dam, John Day River and LePage Park
CONTINUE

April 23-29
Up the Columbia, Rock Creek to Walla Walla
 

On October 7, 1805, Lewis and Clark and the "Corps of Discovery" began their journey down the Clearwater River and into the volcanics of the Pacific Northwest. The Corps travelled from the Clearwater to the Snake and down the "Great Columbia", finally reaching the Pacific Ocean on November 15, 1805. Along the journey they encountered the lava flows of the Columbia Plateau, river channels carved by the great "Missoula Floods", and the awesome beauty of five Cascade Range volcanoes.

Map, Lewis and Clark in the Pacific Northwest, click for brief
                         summary
[Click map for brief summary about the area]


 
Heading for Home - April 1806
Up the Columbia - Deschutes to the John Day
 

Lewis and Clark's camp camp of April 21, 1806, was on the Washington side of the Columbia along the Columbia Hills near Haystack Butte, across from the mouth of the Deschutes River, Oregon.

Tuesday, April 22, 1806
Two of our horses broke loose in the night [April 21, 1806] and straggled to some distance, so that we were not able to retake them and begin our march before seven o'clock. We had just reached the top of a hill near the village, [Columbia Hills area near Haystack Butte] when the load of one of the horses turned, and the animal taking fright at a robe which still adhered to him, ran furiously towards the village ......
"... at 7 oClock we loaded up and Set out, haveing previously Sent off the Canoe with Coulter and Potts we had not arived at the top of the hill which is 200 feet before Shabonos horse threw off his load ..." [Clark, April 22, 1806]


Along the Journey - April 22, 1806
Haystack Butte, 2003

Haystack Butte (Columbia Hills):
Haystack Butte was known as "Des Chutes Peak" on an 1858 Military Recon map (see below), and is located on the Washington State side of the Columbia River, across from the mouth of the Deschutes River. Haystack Butte is part of the Columbia Hills, and is the tallest point in the area.


Map, 1858 Military recon map, Deschutes River Vicinity, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Haystack Butte
  1. 1858 Military Recon Map (section of original), Deschutes River confluence with the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Washington State is north (top) and Oregon is south (bottom). Miller Island is under the fold marks. "Deschutes Peak" today is called "Haystack Butte". Original Map: Map of military reconnaissance from Fort Dalles, Oregon, via Fort Wallah-Wallah, to Fort Taylor, Washington Territory, 1858. Shows approximate location of military road constructed 1859 to 1862. From: the report and maps of Captain John Mullan, United States Army G.P.O., 1863. -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  2. 2003, Haystack Butte, Washington (Columbia Hills), as seen from Interstate 84, Oregon. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Geology of the area:
About 5 million years ago magma began pushing up into the crust of the earth below parts of the Horse Heaven Hills. The magma eventually broke through to the surface and began erupting lavas and forming cinder cones. The volcanism persisted until about a million years ago when the last volcano erupted lava that flowed down off the Columbia Hills and into the Columbia River near the Maryhill Museum. -- Steve Reidel, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Website, 2002



We resumed our route, and soon after halted at a hill, from the top of which we enjoyed a commanding view of the range of mountains in which mount Hood stands, and which continue south as far as the eye can reach, with their tops covered with snow. mount Hood itself bears south 30? west, and the snowy summit of mount Jefferson south 10? west.
"... dureing the time the front of the party was waiting for Cap Lewis, I assended a high hill from which I could plainly See the range of Mountains which runs South from Mt. Hood as far as I could See. I also discovered the top of Mt. Jefferson which is Covered with Snow and is S 10o W. Mt. Hood is S. 30o W. the range of mountains are Covered with timber and also Mt. Hood to a sertain hite. The range of Mountains has Snow on them. ..." [Clark, April 22, 1806]
"... from the top of this emmenense Capt. C. had an extensive view of the country. he observed the range of mountains in which Mount Hood stands to continue nearly south as far as the eye could reach. he also observed the snow clad top of Mount Jefferson which boar S. 10 W. Mount Hood from the same point boar S. 30 W. the tops of the range of western mountains are covered with snow. ..." [Lewis, April 22, 1806]


Along the Journey - April 22, 1806
Mount Hood, Oregon, from Maryhill Museum, Washington, 2003

Mount Hood:
Mount Hood, at 11,245 feet high, is the fourth highest peak in the Cascade Range and the highest in the state of Oregon. The peak dominates the skyline from the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area to the wheat fields of Wasco and Sherman Counties of eastern Oregon.


Map, the Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1993, Mount Hood and Vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Vancouver to the Pacific, click to enlarge Map, 1860, Columbia River, Washington, Oregon, click to enlarge Image, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Timberline, click to enlarge Image, Mount Hood and the Maryhill Museum, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Mount Hood from Maryhill, Washington
  1. Map, "Lewis and Clark Volcano Sitings"
  2. 1993 Map, Mount Hood and Vicinity, showing river drainages which flow into the Columbia river. (Click to enlarge). Includes Hood River and the Sandy River. Map modified from: Brantley and Scott, 1993.
  3. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Map includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is just visible to the south (bottom) and Mount Rainier is to the north but off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  4. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  5. 1855 Map, Columbia River from Vancouver to the Pacific, including Mount St. Helens (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  6. 1860 Map, Columbia River, Washington State, and Oregon (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: Map of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, (1860). This map dates between March 2nd, 1861 (when the Dakota Territory was formed) and March 4th, 1863 (when the Idaho Territory was formed from eastern Washington and western Dakota) Nearing retirement from a thirty year long and rather successful career, S. Augustus Mitchell printed this map showcasing Oregon, the Territory of Washington, and British Columbia. Washington became a territory in 1853, arguing that distances to Willamette Valley kept them from obtaining a voice in the Oregon territorial government. As this map shows, when it split from Oregon proper the Washington territory included parts of Wyoming and Montana and all of Idaho. Territorial government for Idaho would not be approved until 1863. When Mitchell retired he left the business for his son to manage. Washington State University Archives #WSU7. -- Washington State University Archives, 2004
  7. Image, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Timberline parking lot. (Click to enlarge). Photographer: Lyn Topinka. -- USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory Photo Archives, 2004
  8. Mount Hood, Oregon, and the Maryhill Museum, Washington State. (Click to enlarge). Looking West at the Maryhill Museum with Mount Hood in the distance. University of Washington Photo Archives #WAS0564. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2003
  9. 2003, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from from Maryhill Museum, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.



Map, Columbia River including Mount Jefferson, 1860

Mount Jefferson:
Mount Jefferson (10,495 feet) is a prominent feature of the landscape seen from highways east and west of the Cascades. Mount Jefferson is one of thirteen major volcanic centers in the Cascade Range. It has erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, with its last eruptive episode during the last major glaciation which culminated about 15,000 years ago.


Map, the Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Vancouver to the Pacific, click to enlarge Map, 1860, Columbia River, Washington, Oregon, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River, Mount Hood, and Mount Jefferson, click to enlarge Image, Mount Jefferson, Oregon, as seen from Highway 97
  1. Map, "Lewis and Clark Volcano Sitings"
  2. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Map includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is just visible to the south (bottom) and Mount Rainier is to the north but off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  3. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  4. 1855 Map, Columbia River from Vancouver to the Pacific, including Mount Jefferson (section of original) (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. Mount Hood is depicted but not named. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  5. 1860 Map, Columbia River, Washington State, and Oregon (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: Map of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, (1860). This map dates between March 2nd, 1861 (when the Dakota Territory was formed) and March 4th, 1863 (when the Idaho Territory was formed from eastern Washington and western Dakota) Nearing retirement from a thirty year long and rather successful career, S. Augustus Mitchell printed this map showcasing Oregon, the Territory of Washington, and British Columbia. Washington became a territory in 1853, arguing that distances to Willamette Valley kept them from obtaining a voice in the Oregon territorial government. As this map shows, when it split from Oregon proper the Washington territory included parts of Wyoming and Montana and all of Idaho. Territorial government for Idaho would not be approved until 1863. When Mitchell retired he left the business for his son to manage. Washington State University Archives #WSU7. -- Washington State University Archives, 2004
  6. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River looking north, with Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River, Mount Hood, and Mount Jefferson, north-looking low-oblique photograph, NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-032. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  7. Image, Mount Jefferson, Oregon, as seen from Eastern Oregon. (Click to enlarge). Image taken from Highway 97. Photographer: Lyn Topinka. -- USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory Photo Archives, 2004


Towards the south and at no great distance we discern some woody country, and opposite this point of view [Columbia Hills near Haystack Butte] is the mouth of the Towahnahiooks [Deschutes River]. This river receives, at the distance of eighteen or twenty miles, a branch from the right, which takes its rise in mount Hood, while the main stream comes in a course from the southeast; and ten or fifteen miles is joined by a second branch from mount Jefferson.


Along the Journey - April 22, 1806
Deschutes River, 2003

Deschutes River:
Lewis and Clark first called the Deschutes "Clark's River" and that name appears on the route map and in their journals. Later, to avoid confusion with the previously named "Clark's Fork" [Pend Oreille River], Lewis and Clark changed the river's name to it's Indian name "Towahnahiooks," which with its various other spellings is the Chinook term for "enemies," referring to a river coming from southern Paiute Indian territory.
"... To this river, moreover, which we have hitherto called Clarke's river, which rises in the southwest mountains, we restored the name of Towahnahiooks, the name by which it is known to the Eneeshurs ..." [Clark, May 6, 1806]
In the fur trading period the French Canadians called the drainage "Riviere des Chutes," French for "river of the falls," because of its close proximity to the "La Grand Dalle de la Columbia." The tendency to simplify place names with local usage has shortened the name to "Deschutes." The Deschutes River originates on the east slope of the Cascade Mountains southwest of Bend. The river flows north through Central Oregon and enters the Columbia River at River Mile (RM) 205. The basin drains approximately 10,500 square miles and is second in size only to the Willamette River watershed in Oregon. The basin is separated into upper and lower sections, the dividing point between the sections being the Pelton/Round Butte at RM 100. The lower Deschutes River basin covers approximately 2,700 square miles and has 760 miles of perennial streams and 1,440 miles of intermittent streams. Major tributaries to the lower Deschutes River include the Warm Springs and White rivers and Shitike, Trout, Bakeoven, and Buck Hollow creeks. Nineteen high mountain lakes, six lower elevation lakes and small reservoirs, and numerous man-made or natural small ponds are also found. The lower Deschutes River basin lies in the southern portion of the Columbia Basin physiographic province. Loess, volcanic ash and pumice have been laid down during recent geologic times, with much of the original deposits of loess and ash having been eroded from the uplands and deposited along streams. The upper Deschutes River basin encompasses the upper 132 river miles of the Deschutes River and drains approximately 2,200 square miles. -- Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Website, 2004, and Washington State Historical Society Website, 2004, "Lasting Legacy".


Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Hood River to the John Day, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Walla Walla to Vancouver, click to enlarge Map, 1858 Military recon map, Deschutes River Vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1859, Columbia River, Klickitat River and Fort Dalles, click to enlarge Map, 1887, The Dalles vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1983, Miller Island and the Deschutes River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1997, Columbia River from The Dalles to Rock Creek, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Deschutes Drainage, click to enlarge Image, 1910, Junction of the Deschutes River with the Columbia, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Deschutes River
  1. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows the Deschutes River ("To-war-na-he-ooks R."). Map also includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is just visible to the south (bottom) and Mount Rainier is to the north but off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  2. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  3. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Hood River to John Day area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Hood River (Dog River), Klickitat River (Klikatat R.), Mill Creek (?) (Wasco Ck.), The Dalles, The Deschutes (Wanwauwie or des Chutes R.), the John Day River (Mah hah or John Day's R.), and Rock Creek (Camill Cr.). Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  4. 1855 Map, Columbia River, including the Deschutes River (Fall R.) (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  5. 1858 Military Recon Map (section of original), Deschutes River confluence with the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Washington State is north (top) and Oregon is south (bottom). Miller Island is under the fold marks. "Deschutes Peak" today is called "Haystack Butte". Original Map: Map of military reconnaissance from Fort Dalles, Oregon, via Fort Wallah-Wallah, to Fort Taylor, Washington Territory, 1858. Shows approximate location of military road constructed 1859 to 1862. From: the report and maps of Captain John Mullan, United States Army G.P.O., 1863. -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  6. 1859 Map, Columbia River, including the Klickitat River (Klikatat Riv.), Fort Dalles, and the Deschutes River (Fall River) (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map Exhibiting the Routes between Fort Dalles and the Great Salt Lake", By Bvt.2d Lieut. Joseph Dixon, Topl. Engrs. From Explorations made by him while attached to the Wagon Road Expedition to the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, under the command of Capt. H.D. Wallen, 4th Inft., Compiled under the direction of Capt. Geo. Thom, Topl. Engr., from the orders of Brig. Gen. W.S. Harney commanding the Department of Oregon, 1859. Publisher: Bureau of Topog. Engineers, 1860, UU Library ID: #G4240_1859_D5., Scale: 1:1,300,000. -- University of Utah Library, J.Willard Marriott Digitized Collections Website, 2004
  7. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River at The Dalles, including the Deschutes River and Miller Island. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  8. 1983 Map, Miller Island and the Deschutes River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Lake Celilo, 1983, Chart#18533, 1:20,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  9. 1997, NASA Image, Columbia River from The Dalles to Rock Creek (Click to enlarge). View from space - northeast looking photograph of Columbia River, The Dalles Dam, John Day Dam, Miller Island, Maryhill area, Deschutes River, John Day River, and Rock Creek, 1997. The Columbia River flows upper right (east) to lower left (west). NASA Earth from Space #STS085-734-085. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  10. 1994, NASA Image, Deschutes drainage, including Miller Island (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River and the Deschutes River drainage, west-northwest-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. Miller Island is visible in the Columbia River (right side of view) at the mouth of the Deschutes River (center of view). The Cascades are the dark coloration at the top of the view. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-092. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  11. 1910, Junction of the Deschutes River with the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Oregon Historical Society OrHi#24347, also ID#905-D, Columbia Gorge Discovery Center Catalogue #2001.05.008. -- Columbia Gorge Discovery Center Website, 2004.
  12. 2003, Deschutes River, Oregon, as seen from Washington State Highway 14. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Deschutes River State Recreation Area:
The Deschutes River State Recreation Area is a tree-shaded overnight oasis for campers. The sparkle-laden, swift green rush of the Deschutes converges with the Columbia here, and there's no better place for family outing activities like hiking, biking, camping, rafting, world-class steelhead and trout fishing and equestrian trail riding. The Deschutes, which is both a national and state scenic waterway, drops about a quarter of a mile in its final 100 miles as it twists through canyons 700 to 2,200 feet deep. -- Oregon State Parks and Recreation Website, 2002



From this place we prceeded with our baggage in the centre, escorted both before and behind by those of the men who were without the care of horses,

Lewis and Clark are in the area of Maryhill, Washington. At this point the "Biggs Bridge" (U.S. Highway 97) spans the Columbia between Biggs Junction, Oregon, and Maryhill, a location which at one time was called "Five-Mile Rapids". Maryhill Museum, Maryhill State Park, and a reproduction of Stonehenge are located on the Washington side of the Columbia just off of the Highway 97 Bridge.


Along the Journey - April 22, 1806
U.S. Highway 97 Bridge as seen from Maryhill Museum, Washington, 2003

Five-Mile Rapids and U.S. Highway 97 Bridge:
The Biggs Bridge, also known as U.S. Highway 97, is located 13.6 miles above The Dalles Dam, and has a clearance of 88 feet at the center of the fixed highway span. The bridge joins Maryhill, Washington, and Biggs Junction, Oregon. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2003


Map, 1858 Military recon map, Deschutes River Vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1983, Maryhill, Washington, and Biggs, Oregon, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River and the John Day area, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1997, Columbia River from The Dalles to Rock Creek, click to enlarge Image, 1961, U.S. Highway 97 (Biggs) Bridge, under construction, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Highway 97 from Maryhill, Washington
  1. 1858 Military Recon Map (section of original), Deschutes River confluence with the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Washington State is north (top) and Oregon is south (bottom). Miller Island is under the fold marks. "Deschutes Peak" today is called "Haystack Butte". Original Map: Map of military reconnaissance from Fort Dalles, Oregon, via Fort Wallah-Wallah, to Fort Taylor, Washington Territory, 1858. Shows approximate location of military road constructed 1859 to 1862. From: the report and maps of Captain John Mullan, United States Army G.P.O., 1863. -- Washington State University Library Archives Website, 2002
  2. 1983 Map, Maryhill, Washington, and Biggs, Oregon, vicinity (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Lake Celilo, 1983, Chart#18533, 1:20,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  3. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River and the John Day area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River and the John Day area, west-northwest-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. The Columbia River is running from bottom (east) to top (west). The John Day Dam is visible across the Columbia River. The John Day River enters the Columbia from the Oregon side (south, left of river, bottom center). The right of the river (north) is Washington State. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-092. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  4. 1997, NASA Image, Columbia River from The Dalles to Rock Creek (Click to enlarge). View from space - northeast looking photograph of Columbia River, The Dalles Dam, John Day Dam, Miller Island, Maryhill area, Deschutes River, John Day River, and Rock Creek, 1997. The Columbia River flows upper right (east) to lower left (west). NASA Earth from Space #STS085-734-085. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  5. 1961, Columbia River Bridge (U.S. Highway 97) bridge during construction, May 1961. (Click to enlarge). The U.S. Highway 97 Bridge connects Maryhill, Washington, with Biggs, Oregon. Oregon State Photo Archives #1945, Ben Maxwell Collection. -- Oregon State Photo Archives Website, 2003
  6. 2003, U.S. Highway 97 Bridge across the Columbia River, as seen from Maryhill Museum. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Maryhill Museum:
In 1907 Sam Hill, a wealthy entrepreneur bought 6,000 acres of land overlooking the Columbia River with the intention of establishing a Quaker agricultural community. He chose the bluff which Maryhill Museum now occupies as the site for his own home, and in 1914 construction of his poured concrete mansion began. He named both his home and his land company Maryhill after his daughter, Mary. On a promontory on the east side of the Museum's gardens are a series of interpretive panels that include journal entries written by William Clark while the Corps of Discovery stopped at sites visible from the Museum. One panel relates how Lewis and Clark walked across the plateau where the Museum sits during their return trip on April 22, 1806. -- Washington State Parks and Recreation Website, 2002 and Maryhill Museum Website, 2002


Maryhill State Park and Stonehenge Memorial:
Maryhill State Park is a 99-acre camping park with 4,700 feet of waterfront on the Columbia River in Klickitat County. The area is significant for its natural beauty, its access to the surrounding natural wonders and its cultural history. A full-scale model of Stonehenge stands near the park. Maryhill's Stonehenge is the first monument in our nation to honor the dead of World War I. It was built by Sam Hill as a tribute to the soldiers of Klickitat County who lost their lives. The structure is a full-scale replica of England's famous neolithic Stonehenge. The monument lies at the original Maryhill townsite, four miles east of the museum, just off Washington Scenic Route 14. -- Washington State Parks and Recreation Website, 2002 and Maryhill Museum Website, 2002


and having crossed a plain [Columbia Hills] eight miles in extent, reached a village of Eneeshurs, consisting of six houses. ...... [vicinity of today's John Day Dam].
"... after Capt Lewis Came up we proceeded on through a open ruged plain about 8 miles to a Village of 6 Houses on the river here we observed our 2 Canoes passing up on the opposit Side and the Wind too high for them to join us. I halted at the mouth of a run [Moulton, vol.7, suggests it is perhaps Harley Canyon] above the village near Some good grass to let the horses graze and for the party to dine. ..." [Clark, April 22, 1806]
"... the high Smooth plain which is extensive & Smooth back from the river ... ..." [Ordway, April 22, 1806]


Along the Journey - April 22, 1806
John Day Dam, 1998

John Day Dam:
The John Day Dam is located at the head of Lake Celilo, 216 miles upstream from the mouth of the Columbia River. The dam crosses the river near Rufus, Oregon, about 25 miles upstream from The Dalles, just below the mouth of the John Day River. To get to John Day Dam take exit 109 from Interstate 84. The project consists of a navigation lock, spillway, powerhouse and fish passage facilities on both shores. Construction began in 1958 and was completed in 1971, at a total cost of $511 million. At the time of it's completion, John Day Dam Powerhouse was the second largest in the world. Completion of the John Day Dam marked the final step in harnessing the lower waters of the Columbia River. Lake Umatilla, the reservoir behind the John Day Dam, extends approximately 76 miles upstream to the foot of McNary Dam. -- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Website, 2002


Map, 1858 Military recon map, John Day River and Rock Creek, click to enlarge Map, 1984, John Day Dam and the John Day River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1997, Columbia River from The Dalles to Rock Creek, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River and the John Day area, click to enlarge Image, 1958, Columbia River near the John Day Dam site, click to enlarge Image, 1998, Aerial view, John Day Dam, click to enlarge
  1. 1858 Military Recon Map (section of original), John Day River and Rock Creek. (Click to enlarge). Map of military reconnaissance from Fort Dalles, Oregon, via Fort Wallah-Wallah, to Fort Taylor, Washington Territory, 1858. Shows approximate location of military road constructed 1859 to 1862. From the report and maps of Captain John Mullan, United States Army, G.P.O., 1863. University of Washington Archives #UW85. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  2. 1984 Map, John Day Dam and the John Day River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, John Day Dam to Blalock, 1984, Chart#18535, 1:20,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  3. 1997, NASA Image, Columbia River from The Dalles to Rock Creek (Click to enlarge). View from space - northeast looking photograph of Columbia River, The Dalles Dam, John Day Dam, Miller Island, Maryhill area, Deschutes River, John Day River, and Rock Creek, 1997. The Columbia River flows upper right (east) to lower left (west). NASA Earth from Space #STS085-734-085. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  4. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River and the John Day area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River and the John Day area, west-northwest-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. The Columbia River is running from bottom (east) to top (west). The John Day Dam is visible across the Columbia River. The John Day River enters the Columbia from the Oregon side (south, left of river, bottom center). The right of the river (north) is Washington State. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-092. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  5. 1958, John Day Dam site as seen on September 16, 1958. (Click to enlarge). The dam on the Columbia River just below the mouth of the John Day River was completed in 1968. Oregon State Archives Photograph #7263 (Ben Maxwell). Photograph Date: September 16, 1958. Photographer: Ben Maxwell. From: Salem Public Library Collection. -- Oregon State Archives Website, 2002
  6. 1998, aerial view of the John Day Dam. (Click to enlarge). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Photograph #4597-41. Photograph Date: June 9, 1998. Photographer: Bill Johnson. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Photo Archives. -- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Website, 2002


went up the river four miles further, to another Eneeshur village of seven mat houses. Our guide now informed us that the next village was at such a distance that we should not reach it this evening, and as we should be able to procure both dogs and wood at this place, we determined to encamp [on the Washington side of the Columbia, across from the John Day River].


Along the Journey - April 22, 1806
John Day River and LePage Park, 2003

John Day River:
The John Day River in northeastern Oregon contains over 500 river miles and is the second largest undammed tributary in the western United States, after the Yellowstone River. Its spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead populations are two of the last remaining intact wild populations of anadromous fish in the Columbia River basin. The John Day River has also been kept relatively free of hatchery influences. Many segments of the John Day River have been designated under the federal Wild Scenic Rivers Act and Oregon's State Scenic Waterways Act. Topographically, the John Day basin is an interior plateau bounded by the Columbia River to the north (Lake Umatilla), the Blue Mountains to the east, the Aldrich Mountains and Strawberry Range to the south, and the Ochoco Mountains to the west. The basin drains a large portion of northeast Oregon (nearly 8,100 square miles), flows 284 miles from its source in the Strawberry Mountains (9,000 feet), to its mouth at RM 217 on the Columbia River (200 feet). The John Day basin is characterized by diverse landforms ranging from loess-covered plateaus in the lower sections to glaciated alpine peaks in the headwaters. Elevations range from 200 feet at the mouth of the John Day River to over 9,000 feet in the Strawberry Mountains. Two major physiographic provinces exist in the John Day basin -- the Deschutes-Umatilla Plateau and the Blue Mountains. A third province, the Columbia Basin, is a minor province along the confluence with the Columbia River. -- Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Website, 2002


Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1833, Illman and Pilbrow, Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1837, Columbia River with Mount Hood, click to enlarge Map, 1849, Alexander Ross's Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Hood River to the John Day, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Walla Walla to Vancouver, click to enlarge Map, 1858 Military recon map, John Day River and Rock Creek, click to enlarge Map, 1984, John Day Dam and the John Day River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1997, Columbia River from The Dalles to Rock Creek, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River and the John Day area, click to enlarge Image, 2003, John Day River
  1. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows the John Day River ("R. la Page"). Map also includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is just visible to the south (bottom) and Mount Rainier is to the north but off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  2. 1833 Map (section of original), Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Includes Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson. Note: Mount Baker is depicted (upper middle) but Mounts Adams, Rainier and St. Helens are missing. The Columbia River is shown as "Oregon River" at its mouth and "Columbia or Oregon R." further inland. "Wappatoo Valley" is labeled. Also shows Fort Clatsop ("F. Clatsop or F. George"), the Willamette River ("Multnomah R."), Sandy River ("Quicksand R."), John Day River ("R.La Page"), Walla Walla River ("Wallwullah R."), Snake River ("Lewis R."), and the Yakima River ("Tapete R."). Original Map: Oregon Territory, 1833. Creator: Illman & Pilbrow, published by Illman & Pilbrow, New York. Comments: Illman & Pilbrow is the engraving firm which copyrighted and published this map, the actual artist is unknown. Washington State University Digital Maps Collection #WSU323. University of Washington Digital Maps Collection #UW104. -- Washington State University Early Washington Maps Digital Collection Website, 2004
  3. 1837 Map, Columbia River with Mount Hood (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes the "Wallamant or Multnomah R.". Original Map: Map of the Territory West of the Rocky Mountains (1837) Author: Washington Irving, Publisher: Philadelphia, Carey, Lea, & Blanchard. Washington State University Archives #WSU555. -- Washington State University Early Washington Maps Digital Collection Website, 2004
  4. 1849 Map (section of original), Alexander Ross's Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: Map of the Columbia to illustrate Ross's adventures. Author: Alexander Ross; Publication Date: 1849; Publisher: London, Smith, Elder and Co., 1849. Washington State University Archives #WSU478. -- Washington State University Early Washington Maps Digital Collection Website, 2004
  5. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  6. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Hood River to John Day area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Hood River (Dog River), Klickitat River (Klikatat R.), Mill Creek (?) (Wasco Ck.), The Dalles, The Deschutes (Wanwauwie or des Chutes R.), the John Day River (Mah hah or John Day's R.), and Rock Creek (Camill Cr.). Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  7. 1855 Map, Columbia River, including "John Days River" (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  8. 1858 Military Recon Map (section of original), John Day River and Rock Creek. (Click to enlarge). Map of military reconnaissance from Fort Dalles, Oregon, via Fort Wallah-Wallah, to Fort Taylor, Washington Territory, 1858. Shows approximate location of military road constructed 1859 to 1862. From the report and maps of Captain John Mullan, United States Army, G.P.O., 1863. University of Washington Archives #UW85. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  9. 1984 Map, John Day Dam and the John Day River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, John Day Dam to Blalock, 1984, Chart#18535, 1:20,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  10. 1997, NASA Image, Columbia River from The Dalles to Rock Creek (Click to enlarge). View from space - northeast looking photograph of Columbia River, The Dalles Dam, John Day Dam, Miller Island, Maryhill area, Deschutes River, John Day River, and Rock Creek, 1997. The Columbia River flows upper right (east) to lower left (west). NASA Earth from Space #STS085-734-085. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  11. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River and the John Day area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River and the John Day area, west-northwest-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. The Columbia River is running from bottom (east) to top (west). The John Day Dam is visible across the Columbia River. The John Day River enters the Columbia from the Oregon side (south, left of river, bottom center). The right of the river (north) is Washington State. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-092. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  12. 2003, John Day River and LePage Park, Oregon. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


LePage Park, Oregon:
LePage Park was named for expedition member private Jean LePage, whose name Lewis and Clark gave to today's John Day River. -- Lewis and Clark Bicentennial in Oregon Website, 2002


We here purchased a horse, and engaged for a second in exchange for one of our canoes, but as they were on the opposite side of the river, and the wind very high, they were not able to cross before sunset, at which time the Indian had returned home to the next village above. ......
"... after we proceeded on up the river about 4 miles to a village of 7 mat Lodges. here our Chopunnish guide informed me that the next villg. was at Some distance and that we Could not get to it to night, and that there was no wood to be precured on this Side. ... the air I find extreemly Cold which blows Continularly from Mt. Hoods Snowey regions. ... we made 14 miles to day with the greatest exirtion. ..." [Clark, April 22, 1806]


Along the Journey - April 22, 1806
The Camp - April 22, 1806:
Lewis and Clark's camp of April 22, 1806 was on the Washington side of the Columbia, across from the John Day River.



 
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June/July 2004, Lyn Topinka
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