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The Volcanoes of
Lewis and Clark
October 29, 1805
The Columbia River Gorge - The Dalles to Little White Salmon
 
Home
The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark

Map of the Journey
Volcanoes, Basalt Plateaus, Major Rivers, etc.

The Volcanoes
Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, Mount Rainier, and Mount St. Helens

CALENDAR of the Journey
October 1805 to June 1806

Along the Journey
Pacific Northwest Maps - Columbia River, Volcanoes, Flood Basalts, Missoula Floods, Geology, etc.

The Corps of Discovery
The Journey of Lewis and Clark

About the Reference Materials
The Journals, Biddle/Allen, DeVoto, Gass, Moulton, Topo Maps, and others

USGS Lewis and Clark Links
Links to USGS Websites highlighting the Lewis and Clark Journey

Resources
Publications Referenced and Websites Visited


PREVIOUS

October 26-28
The Dalles, "Long Narrows"
October 29

Entering the Columbia River Gorge,
The Dalles to the Little White Salmon

Rowena Gap Basalts, Klickitat River and Lyle (Washington), Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area, Memaloose Island, Bingen Gap Basalts, Hood River and Hood River Valley, Mount Hood, White Salmon River, Columbia River west of White Salmon, Mount Adams, Underwood Mountain, Little White Salmon River
CONTINUE

October 30
"Lower Falls of the Columbia", Dog Mountain to Cascade Locks
 

On October 7, 1805, Lewis and Clark and the "Corps of Discovery" began their journey down the Clearwater River and into the volcanics of the Pacific Northwest. The Corps travelled from the Clearwater to the Snake and down the "Great Columbia", finally reaching the Pacific Ocean on November 15, 1805. Along the journey they encountered the lava flows of the Columbia Plateau, river channels carved by the great "Missoula Floods", and the awesome beauty of five Cascade Range volcanoes.

Map, Lewis and Clark in the Pacific Northwest, click for brief
                         summary
[Click map for brief summary about the area]


 
To the Pacific - October 1805
The Columbia River Gorge - The Dalles to Little White Salmon
 

Lewis and Clark's camp of October 28, 1805, was on the Oregon side of the Columbia River, near Crate's Point and Rocky Island. On October 29, 1805, the men begin their journey down the Columbia River Gorge.

Tuesday, October 29, 1805
The morning was still cloudy, and the wind from the west, but as it had abated its violence, we set out at daylight. At the distance of four miles we passed a creek on the right [??? --- Note: this Biddle/Allen publication has the creek on the right. Thwaites and Moulton versions have the creek on the left, see quoted passage below.], one mile below which is a village of seven houses on the same side. This is the residence of the principal chief of the Chilluckittequaw nation, whom we now found to be the same between whom and our two chiefs we had made a peace at the Echeloot village. ......
"... A cloudy morning wind from the West but not hard, we Set out at day light, and proceeded on about 'five' miles Came too on the Stard. Side at a village of 7 houses ... we call this the friendly village. ..." [Clark, October 29, 1805]
The hills as we passed are high with steep and rocky sides, [basalts of Rowena Gap area] and some pine and white oak, and an undergrowth of shrubs scattered over them.


Along the Journey - October 29, 1805
Basalts of Rowena Gap area, Oregon, 2003

Rowena Gap Basalts:
Doug's Beach State Park is situated underneath basalt cliffs carved by the flood waters of the last ice age. The basalt emerged as immense lava flows from massive cracks in the earth's crust. These flows covered all of eastern Washington and Oregon long before the floods. An observer can identify the various flows by the distinct stratigraphy along the cliff walls. Some flows appear to have been hundreds of feet thick in some areas. In Captain Clark's mileage notes compiled at Fort Clatsop, he used the name "Pilgrim rocks" for this area. Today's maps show "Rowena Gap". The river bluffs, with six separate basalt lava flows, stand bare of soil to about the 1,000-foot level. The spectacular bluffs on the northern shore of the Columbia are situated in Klickitat County, Washington, east of Lyle. In 1805, Lewis and Clark stopped for supplies at an Indian village in the vicinity of today's Doug's Beach State Park. The park acquired its name from a windsurfer who used to frequent the beach when the sport was in its infancy. On the south side is Meyer State Park, and more basalts of Rowena Gap. Spectacular views are available from the top of the ridge at Rowena Crest, Oregon. -- Washington State Parks Website, 2002, Washington State Historical Society Website, 2002, Washington State Parks and Recreation Website, 2003, and Oregon State Parks and Recreation Website, 2003.


Image, ca.1913, Columbia River upstream, from near Lyle, Washington, click to enlarge Image, 2002, Rowena basalts
  1. ca.1913, Columbia River looking upstream, from near Lyle, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Image taken from downstream of Lyle, Washington. Photo by Albert Henry Barnes, ca.1913. University of Washington A.H. Barnes Collection #BAR013. -- University of Washington Library Archives, 2003
  2. 2002, Rowena Gap basalts, Oregon side, as seen from Meyer State Park, Oregon. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2002 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.



Four miles below this village is a small river on the right side [Klickitat River]; immediately below is a village of Chilluckittequaws, consisting of eleven houses. [today Lyle, Washingon, is located on the upstream bank of the Klickitat where it merges with the Columbia] Here we landed and smoked a pipe with the inhabitants, who were very cheerful and friendly. They as well as the people of the last village inform us, that this river [Klickitat River] comes a considerable distance from the N.N.E. that it has a great number of falls, which prevent the salmon from passing up, and that there are ten nations residing on it who subsist on berries, or such game as they can procure with their bows and arrows. At its mouth the river is sixty yards wide, and has a deep and very rapid channel. From the number of falls of which the Indians spoke, we gave it the name of Cataract river [Klickitat River]. We purchased four dogs, and then proceeded.
"... after brackfast we proceeded on, the mountains are high on each Side, containing Scattering pine white oake & under groth, hill Sides Steep and rockey; at 4 miles lower we observed a Small river falling in with great rapidity on the Stard. Side below which is a village of 11 houses, here we landed to Smoke a pipe with the nativs and examine the mouth of the river, which I found to be 60 yards wide rapid and deep, The inhabitants of the village are friendly and Chearfull; those people inform us also those at last village that this little river is long and full of falls, no Salmon pass up it, it runs from N. N. E. that 'ten' nations live on this river and its waters ... we purchased 4 dogs and Set out -- ..." [Clark, October 29, 1805]


Along the Journey - October 29, 1805
Mouth of the Klickitat River, Washington, 2004

Klickitat River:
The Klickitat River is located on the east slope of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington and drains 1,350 square miles in Klickitat and Yakima counties. The Klickitat is one of the longest undammed rivers in the northwest. It flows 95 miles south from its source in the Cascades and enters the Columbia at River Mile 180, thirty-four miles upstream of Bonneville Dam. The geology of the Klickitat watershed is dominated by extensive basalt strata having a total thickness of several thousand feet. The crest of the Cascade Mountains, dominated by 12,000-foot Mount Adams ("Pahto") forms the western boundary of the basin. At the northwest corner of the basin lie the Goat Rocks, the deeply eroded remnants of an extinct volcano, that reach to about 8,000 feet. Basalt ridges and plateaus separate the Klickitat from other river basins on the north and east. About 75 percent of the subbasin is forested. The Klickitat River is located within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area. The spectacular geological formation of the "Narrows" supports one of the only two active Native American dip-net fisheries in the Columbia River Basin. Upstream on the Klickitat, anglers drift the river in pursuit of salmon and steelhead trout while marveling at the views of the wide rolling hills and basalt gorge landscape. -- Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Website, 2002, and U.S. National Park Service, Wild and Scenic Rivers Website, 2002


Map, 1999, Mount Adams and Vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Hood River to the John Day, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Walla Walla to Vancouver, click to enlarge Map, 1859, Columbia River, Klickitat River and Fort Dalles, click to enlarge Map, 1887, White Salmon vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1887, The Dalles vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1985, Klickitat River and Lyle, Washington, click to enlarge Image, ca.1913, Rowena area, Mount Adams, and the mouth of the Klickitat, click to enlarge Penny Postcard, ca.1910, Aerial view Klickitat River with Mount Hood, click to enlarge Image, 2004, Mouth of the Klickitat River
  1. 1999 Map, Mount Adams and Vicinity, showing drainages into the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Includes the Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and Klickitat River in Washington State, and the Hood River in Oregon. Map modified from Vallance, 1999, USGS Bulletin 2161.
  2. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows the Klickitat River ("Cataract R."). From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  3. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Hood River to John Day area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Hood River (Dog River), Klickitat River (Klikatat R.), Mill Creek (?) (Wasco Ck.), The Dalles, The Deschutes (Wanwauwie or des Chutes R.), the John Day River (Mah hah or John Day's R.), and Rock Creek (Camill Cr.). Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  4. 1855 Map, Columbia River, including the Klickitat River (Cathlatates R.) (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  5. 1859 Map, Columbia River, including the Klickitat River (Klikatat Riv.), Fort Dalles, and the Deschutes River (Fall River) (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map Exhibiting the Routes between Fort Dalles and the Great Salt Lake", By Bvt.2d Lieut. Joseph Dixon, Topl. Engrs. From Explorations made by him while attached to the Wagon Road Expedition to the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, under the command of Capt. H.D. Wallen, 4th Inft., Compiled under the direction of Capt. Geo. Thom, Topl. Engr., from the orders of Brig. Gen. W.S. Harney commanding the Department of Oregon, 1859. Publisher: Bureau of Topog. Engineers, 1860, UU Library ID: #G4240_1859_D5., Scale: 1:1,300,000. -- University of Utah Library, J.Willard Marriott Digitized Collections Website, 2004
  6. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the White Salmon River, including the Klickitat River. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  7. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River at The Dalles, including the Klickitat River. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  8. 1985 Map (section of original), Klickitat River and Lyle, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Bonneville to The Dalles, 1985, Chart#18531, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  9. ca.1913, Columbia River, Rowena area (Oregon), Mount Adams (Washington), and the mouth of the Klickitat River. (Click to enlarge). Photo by Albert Henry Barnes, ca.1913. University of Washington A.H. Barnes Collection #BAR015. -- University of Washington Library Archives, 2003
  10. ca.1910, Penny Postcard, Aerial view Klickitat River with Mount Hood in the distance. (Click to enlarge). #6094, The Portland Post Card Co., Portland, Oregon. -- L.Topinka private collection, 2003, used with permission.
  11. 2004, Mouth of the Klickitat River, Washington, as seen from Rowena Crest, Oregon. (Click to enlarge). Lyle, Washington is located on the upstream side (right). Copyright © 2004 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Klickitat Landing, 1899

Lyle, Washington:
Lyle has a rich heritage that extends from the Indians who chose the location for their villages to the pioneers who arrived by ox-drawn carts from states far to the east. The first known white men to visit the site were members of the Lewis and Clark expedition who recorded their visit to the Indian village on the knoll west of the Klickitat on October 29, 1805. In 1876, the first Post Office east of the Cascades and north of the Columbia River was established at Klickitat Landing to service most of Eastern Washington. The mail arrived by steamship and was distributed by horseback. In 1876, James O. Lyle became the Postmaster and changed the name to Lyle. Early settlers recognized the strategic importance of Lyle and platted a town site. A ferry boat run was developed to accommodated trade between Oregon and Washington. In 1909, the present town of Lyle was platted. Two sheep sheds with a capacity of 30,000 sheet were constructed on the Point. With those in place, Lyle became an important sheep and wool shipping center. -- Lyle, Washington, Community Website, 2003


Map, 1985, Klickitat River and Lyle, Washington, click to enlarge Image, 1899, Klickitat Landing, click to enlarge
  1. 1985 Map (section of original), Klickitat River and Lyle, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Bonneville to The Dalles, 1985, Chart#18531, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  2. 1899, Klickitat Landing (Lyle, Washington). (Click to enlarge). Sheep at the Ferry, by Benjamin Gifford, 1899. Oregon Historical Society Photograph #Gi181. -- Oregon Historical Society Website, 2002



The country as we advance is more rocky and broken, and the pine and low whiteoak on the hills increase in great quantity. [Lewis and Clark are now in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area]


Along the Journey - October 29, 1805
Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area, 2003

Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area:
Lewis and Clark have entered what is today the "Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area". The Columbia River Gorge is a spectacular river canyon cutting the only sea-level route through the Cascade Mountain Range. The Gorge is 80 miles long and up to 4,000 feet deep, with the north canyon walls in Washington State and the south canyon walls in the State of Oregon. The "Gorge" is located approximately 20 miles east of Portland, Oregon, with Visitor Centers being located at Skamania Lodge, Multnomah Falls, the Gorge Discover Center in The Dalles, and at Bonneville Dam. -- U.S. Forest Service Website, 2002, and Lewis and Clark Bicentennial "lewisandclar200.gov" Website, 2002


NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River Gorge, Mount Hood, Mount Adams, and Mount St. Helens, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1997, Columbia River, Mount Hood, and Mount Adams, click to enlarge Image, 1927, Columbia River Gorge including Phoca Rock, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Columbia River Gorge from Cape Horn
  1. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River Gorge (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River and the Columbia River Gorge, west-northwest-looking, low-oblique photograph, September 1994. The Columbia River is running from the bottom (east) to the top (west). The Cascade Range is the dark color through the middle of the image, with Mount Hood on the Oregon side of the Columbia and Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens on the Washington side of the Columbia. NASA Earth from Space #STS064-112-092. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  2. 1997, NASA Image, Columbia River looking northeast, with Mount Adams and Mount Hood (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River, Willamette Valley, Columbia Plateau, Mount Adams, and Mount Hood. In this northeast-looking photograph the Columbia River flows right (east) to left (west). NASA Earth from Space #STS085-734-085. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  3. 1927, Columbia River Gorge, Crown Point, Vista House, and Phoca Rock. (Click to enlarge). Vista House was constructed in 1916 to provide a vantage point and rest stop for motorists. It provides a spectacular view of the gorge. Phoca Rock (dark speck) is in the middle of Columbia. Photograph Date: 1927. Oregon State Archives, Private Donation #OPD0019. -- Oregon State Archives Website, 2003
  4. 2003, Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area, as seen from Cape Horn, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Beacon Rock is in the distance, left. Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Three miles below Cataract river [Klickitat River] we passed three large rocks in the river; that in the middle is large and longer than the rest, and from the circumstance of its having several square vaults on it, obtained the name of Sepulchre island [Memaloose Island].


Along the Journey - October 29, 1805
Memaloose Island, 2003

Memaloose Island:
Lewis and Clark called this island "Sepulchar Island". The Chinook Indian tribes of the Columbia Gorge used to lay the bones of their dead on open pyres on Memaloose Island in the middle of the Columbia River near The Dalles. A granite monument visible from Memaloose State Park campground marks the resting place where a local pioneer named Victor Trevitt wished to chart his eternal course buried among honorable men. Memaloose State Park, Oregon, was named for the island. -- Oregon State Parks and Recreation Website, 2002, and Lewis & Clark Bicentennial of Oregon Website, 2002


Map, 1934 USGS topo map of Memaloose area, click to enlarge Map, 1985, Major Creek, Washington, and Memaloose Island, click to enlarge Image, 1948, Memaloose Island, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Memaloose Island in the Columbia River
  1. 1934 Map (section of original), from The Dalles 1:125,000 topographic quadrangle. (Click to enlarge). Original map surveyed in 1929-30, contour interval of 50 feet. The Washington side of the river is not depicted on the map. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  2. 1985 Map (section of original), Major Creek, Washington, and Memaloose Island. (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Bonneville to The Dalles, 1985, Chart#18531, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  3. 1948, Memaloose Island is in the background of this photograph. (Click to enlarge). Three people in a late 1940's model Chrysler convertable car at Memaloose State Park, overlooking the Columbia River. Photograph Date: 1948. Oregon State Archives, Oregon Highway Division #OHD3453, -- Oregon State Archives Website, 2002
  4. 2003, Memaloose Island as seen from Interstate 84, Oregon. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


A short distance below are two huts of Indians on the right: the river now widens, and in three miles we came to two more houses on the right; one mile beyond which is a rocky island [possibly Eighteenmile Island] in a bend of the river towards the left. Within the next six miles we passed fourteen huts of Indians, scattered on the right bank, [passing thru the basalts of the Bingen Gap]


Along the Journey - October 29, 1805
Bingen Gap basalts, 2003

Bingen Gap basalts:

Image, 2003, Bingen Gap basalts
  1. 2003, Bingen Gap basalts. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


and then reached the entrance of a river on the left, which we called Labieshe's river [Hood River], after Labieshe one of our party.


Along the Journey - October 29, 1805
Hood River, Oregon, 2003

Hood River:
The Hood River watershed is located in north central Oregon and covers 339 square miles. The river flows north from Mount Hood into the Columbia River 22 miles upstream of the Bonneville Dam. The Hood River has three major forks - the West Fork enters the mainstem 12 miles from the Columbia, while the Middle and East Forks converge near River Mile 15. The watershed has an estimated 695 stream miles with 108 miles accessible to anadromous fish. About 100,000 years ago, a large portion of Mount Hood's north flank and summit collapsed. The resulting debris avalanche transformed into a lahar (mudflow) that swept down the Hood River valley. At the river's mouth (where the city of Hood River now stands) the lahar was 400 feet deep. The lahar crossed the Columbia River and surged up the White Salmon River valley on the Washington side. Since that time lava has filled in the scar left by the debris avalanche. Today the Hood River Bridge connects the cities of Hood River, Oregon, with Bingen and White Salmon in Washington State. The Hood River Bridge is one of only three river crossings in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. The bridge was recently designated by the Washington State Legislature as State Route 35. It was built in 1924 and is the second oldest Columbia River crossing. Lewis and Clark called this river "Labieche", after Private Francois Labiche, a member of the expedition. Another early name was "Dog River". Today's name "Hood River" is taken from Mount Hood, the source of the river. -- Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Website, 2002, Gardner, et.al., 2000, USGS Fact Sheet 060-00, Oregon State Archives Website, 2002, Washington State Department of Transportation Website, 2003, and Washington State Historical Society Website, 2004, "Lasting Legacy".


Map, 1993, Mount Hood and Vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Hood River to the John Day, click to enlarge Map, 1887, White Salmon vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1929 USGS topo map of Hood River area, click to enlarge Image, 1920, Hood River Bridge over Hood River, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Hood River
  1. 1993 Map, Mount Hood and Vicinity, showing river drainages which flow into the Columbia river. (Click to enlarge). Includes Hood River and the Sandy River. Map modified from: Brantley and Scott, 1993.
  2. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows Hood River ("Labieche R."). Map includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is to the south (bottom) and off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  3. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Hood River to John Day area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Hood River (Dog River), Klickitat River (Klikatat R.), Mill Creek (?) (Wasco Ck.), The Dalles, The Deschutes (Wanwauwie or des Chutes R.), the John Day River (Mah hah or John Day's R.), and Rock Creek (Camill Cr.). Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  4. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River including the Hood River. (Click to enlarge). The Hood River is not named, entering the Columbia from the south, almost directly across from the White Salmon River. Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  5. 1929 Map (section of original), from Hood River 1:125,000 topographic quadrangle. (Click to enlarge). Original map surveyed in 1925-26, contour interval of 100 feet. Hood River is the drainiage lower right which enters the Columbia River at the city of Hood River, Oregon. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  6. 1920, Hood River Bridge, Columbia River Highway, Hood River, Oregon. (Click to enlarge). -- Oregon Department of Transportation Website, 2002
  7. 2003, Hood River, Oregon, at mouth looking towards the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Geology of Hood River Valley:
The Hood River Valley is an incompletely understood structural depression extending north into Washington and southward toward Mount Hood. The valley's east margin is a series of anastomosing normal-slip faults that displace the Columbia River Basalt Group by about 1,800 feet in the area of Panorama Point, Oregon. Panorama Point itself is a promontory of the Wanapum Basalt Formation, but the hills to the east in the Hood River escarpment are underlain by the Grande Ronde Basalt, a stratigraphically lower formation (also in the Columbia River Basalt Group) displaced upward by the faults. The Hood River valley extends north a few miles into Washington, although an early Pleistocene volcano, Underwood Mountain, fills much of it there. A lava from Underwood Mountain has a K-Ar (whole rock, Hammond and Korosec, 1983) age of 0.85+/-0.02 million years. -- Scott, et. al., 1997


Just above this river [Hood River] is a low ground more thickly timbered than usual, and in front are four huts of Indians on the bank, which are the first we have seen on that side of the Columbia. The exception may be occasioned by this spot's being more than usually protected from the approach of their enemies, by the creek, and the thick wood behind.

The Biddle/Allen version did not mention Mount Hood to the south. The original journals however refer to it as the "falls mountain".

"... 4 Houses in a point of a timbered bottom on the Lard. Side at a large creek or River 40 yr. passed a bottom on the Stard Side the distance in which there is 14 Indian houses -- The falls mountain covered with Snow is South. S.70o W. 6 miles to a high Clift of rocks Std bend passed a large creek at 1 mile on the Stard. Side in which the Indians catch fish, a large Sand bar from the Lard. Side for 4 miles, at which place a small stream of water falls over a rock of 100 feet on the Lard Side passed 4 Indian Houses at 5 miles in a bottom on the Lard Side ..." [Clark, October 29, 1805, first draft]
"... passed 2 Lodges of Indians a Short distance below the Sepulchar Island on the Stard. Side river wide, at 4 mile passed 2 houses on the Stard. Side, Six miles lower passed 4 houses above the mouth of a Small river 40 yards wide on the Lard. Side a thick timbered bottom above & back of those houses; those are the first houses which we have Seen on the South Side of the Columbia River, ... from the mouth of this little river which we shall Call Labeasche River, the 'falls mountain' is South and the top is covered with Snow , one mile below pass the mouth of a large rapid Stream on the Stard. Side, opposit ot a large Sand bar, in this creek the Indians above take their fish, here we Saw Several canoes, which induced us to call this Canoe Creek it is 28 yards wide, about 4 miles lower and below the Sand bar is a butifull cascade falling over a rock of about 100 feet ..." [Clark, October 29, 1805]
"... In the evening we discovered a hight mountain to the south, not more than five miles off, covered with snow. We have here still water; and the breadth of the river is from three quarters to a mile. ..." [Gass, October 29, 1805]
"... Saw Snow on a mountain on the Lard Side. ..." [Ordway, October 29, 1805]


Along the Journey - October 29, 1805
Mount Hood, Oregon, from city of Hood River, 2004

Mount Hood: Mount Hood, at 11,245 feet high, is the fourth highest peak in the Cascade Range and the highest in the state of Oregon. The peak dominates the skyline from the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area to the wheat fields of Wasco and Sherman Counties of eastern Oregon.


Map, the Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1993, Mount Hood and Vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Vancouver to the Pacific, click to enlarge Map, 1860, Columbia River, Washington, Oregon, click to enlarge Image, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Timberline, click to enlarge Image, 2004, Mount Hood from Hood River
  1. Map, "Lewis and Clark Volcano Sitings"
  2. 1993 Map, Mount Hood and Vicinity, showing river drainages which flow into the Columbia river. (Click to enlarge). Includes Hood River and the Sandy River. Map modified from: Brantley and Scott, 1993.
  3. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows Mount Hood. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  4. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  5. 1855 Map, Columbia River from Vancouver to the Pacific, including Mount St. Helens (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  6. 1860 Map, Columbia River, Washington State, and Oregon (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: Map of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, (1860). This map dates between March 2nd, 1861 (when the Dakota Territory was formed) and March 4th, 1863 (when the Idaho Territory was formed from eastern Washington and western Dakota) Nearing retirement from a thirty year long and rather successful career, S. Augustus Mitchell printed this map showcasing Oregon, the Territory of Washington, and British Columbia. Washington became a territory in 1853, arguing that distances to Willamette Valley kept them from obtaining a voice in the Oregon territorial government. As this map shows, when it split from Oregon proper the Washington territory included parts of Wyoming and Montana and all of Idaho. Territorial government for Idaho would not be approved until 1863. When Mitchell retired he left the business for his son to manage. Washington State University Archives #WSU7. -- Washington State University Archives, 2004
  7. Image, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Timberline parking lot. (Click to enlarge). Photographer: Lyn Topinka. -- USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory Photo Archives, 2004
  8. 2004, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from the City of Hood River. (Click to enlarge). Image taken from levee along the Columbia River. Copyright © 2004 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.



We again embarked, and at the distance of a mile passed the mouth of a rapid creek on the right [White Salmon River] eighteen yards wide: in this creek the Indians whom we left take their fish, and from the number of canoes which were in it, we called it Canoe creek [White Salmon River].


Along the Journey - October 29, 1805
White Salmon River, 2003

White Salmon River:
The White Salmon River originates in south central Washington along the south slope of Mount Adams. It flows south for 45 miles before entering the Columbia River and Bonneville Reservoir near Underwood, Washington, at Columbia River Mile 167. The White Salmon River drains approximately 386 square miles. Principal tributaries include Trout Lake, Buck, Mill, Dry, Gilmer, and Rattlesnake Creeks. The White Salmon basin is oriented north to south with elevations ranging from 80 feet to 7,500 feet. Topography varies within the watershed from rugged mountains to rolling hills to river valleys. Consolidated sediments are overlain with basaltic lava flows. Subsequent erosion, mud flows, and glaciation have resulted in precipitous cliffs, deeply incised canyons, and relatively flat valley floors. The mainstem of the White Salmon River drops 7,420 feet in 45 miles for an average gradient of 3.2 percent. Churning rapids and unique beauty draw visitors to the White Salmon River. Glacial waters and cold clear springs support a lush plant life, while continuous rapids, waterfalls, and abrupt drops challenge boaters of advanced skills. The best fishing is below BZ Corners, however difficult access because the river is in a steep canyon. Most of the river corridor is private land. -- Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Website, 2002, U.S. National Park Service, Wild and Scenic Rivers Website, 2002, and U.S. Forest Service, Gifford Pinchot National Forest Website, 2002


Map, 1999, Mount Adams and Vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1887, White Salmon vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1929 USGS topo map of Underwood Mountain area, click to enlarge Image, 1936, White Salmon River, click to enlarge Image, 2003, White Salmon River
  1. 1999 Map, Mount Adams and Vicinity, showing drainages into the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Includes the Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and Klickitat River in Washington State, and the Hood River in Oregon. Map modified from Vallance, 1999, USGS Bulletin 2161.
  2. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows the White Salmon River ("Canoe R."). From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  3. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the White Salmon River and vicinity. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  4. 1929 Map (section of original), from Hood River 1:125,000 topographic quadrangle. (Click to enlarge). Original map surveyed in 1925-26, contour interval of 100 feet. Little White Salmon River is on the left and White Salmon River is on the right. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  5. 1936, Logs on the White Salmon River with the Columbia River in the background. (Click to enlarge). Photograph by Arthur Rothstein, July 1936. U.S. Library of Congress Archives, Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection. -- U.S. Library of Congress Archives, American Memories Website 2002.
  6. 2003, White Salmon River, Washington, looking upstream from mouth. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Columbia River west of White Salmon, ca.1902

Columbia River west of White Salmon:
The Washington town of White Salmon is located on the bluff, just upstream of the White Salmon River.


Map, 1929 USGS topo map of Underwood Mountain area, click to enlarge Image, ca.1902, Columbia River west from White Salmon, Washington, click to enlarge
  1. 1929 Map (section of original), from Hood River 1:125,000 topographic quadrangle. (Click to enlarge). Original map surveyed in 1925-26, contour interval of 100 feet. Little White Salmon River is on the left and White Salmon River is on the right. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  2. ca.1902, Columbia River west from White Salmon. (Click to enlarge). Photograph date: ca.1902. Photographer: Lily E. White. Oregon Historical Society #OrHi65457. -- Oregon Historical Society Website 2002.


While Lewis and Clark did not make mentioned of it, Mount Adams is occasionally visible along this section of the Columbia River.


Along the Journey - October 29, 1805
Mount Adams and the mouth of the White Salmon River, 2003

Mount Adams:
Mount Adams, Washington, is visible from Hood River, Oregon. Mount Adams, at 12,276 feet, is one of the largest volcanoes in the Cascade Range. The towering stratovolcano is marked by a dozen glaciers, most of which are fed radially from its summit icecap.


Map, the Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1999, Mount Adams and Vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Vancouver to the Pacific, click to enlarge Map, 1860, Columbia River, Washington, Oregon, click to enlarge Image, ca.1913, Rowena area, Mount Adams, and the mouth of the Klickitat, click to enlarge Image, 1987, Mount Adams, Washington, from Troutlake, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Mount Adams and the mouth of the White Salmon River
  1. Map, "Lewis and Clark Volcano Sitings"
  2. 1999 Map, Mount Adams and Vicinity, showing drainages into the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Includes the Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and Klickitat River in Washington State, and the Hood River in Oregon. Map modified from Vallance, 1999, USGS Bulletin 2161.
  3. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  4. 1855 Map, Columbia River from Vancouver to the Pacific, including Mount St. Helens (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  5. 1860 Map, Columbia River, Washington State, and Oregon (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: Map of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, (1860). This map dates between March 2nd, 1861 (when the Dakota Territory was formed) and March 4th, 1863 (when the Idaho Territory was formed from eastern Washington and western Dakota) Nearing retirement from a thirty year long and rather successful career, S. Augustus Mitchell printed this map showcasing Oregon, the Territory of Washington, and British Columbia. Washington became a territory in 1853, arguing that distances to Willamette Valley kept them from obtaining a voice in the Oregon territorial government. As this map shows, when it split from Oregon proper the Washington territory included parts of Wyoming and Montana and all of Idaho. Territorial government for Idaho would not be approved until 1863. When Mitchell retired he left the business for his son to manage. Washington State University Archives #WSU7. -- Washington State University Archives, 2004
  6. ca.1913, Columbia River, Rowena area (Oregon), Mount Adams (Washington), and the mouth of the Klickitat River. (Click to enlarge). Photo by Albert Henry Barnes, ca.1913. University of Washington A.H. Barnes Collection #BAR015. -- University of Washington Library Archives, 2003
  7. 1987, USGS Photo showing Mount Adams, Washington, from Trout Lake (Click to enlarge). Photographer: Lyn Topinka, Date: November 1987. -- USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory Photo Archives, 2004
  8. 2003, Mount Adams, Washington, and the mouth of the White Salmon River, as seen from Hood River, Oregon. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Just downstream of the White Salmon River is the Pleistocene volcano, Underwood Mountain.


Along the Journey - October 29, 1805
Underwood Mountain, Washington, 2003

Underwood Mountain:
The right bank of the White Salmon River skirts the base of a Pleistocene volcano Underwood Mountain (2,755 feet). At this location, the Hood River valley extends north a few miles into Washington, and the early Pleistocene volcano, Underwood Mountain, fills much of it there. A lava from Underwood Mountain has a K-Ar (whole rock, Hammond and Korosec, 1983) age of 0.85+/-0.02 million years. The geology of this area is characterized by basalt flows of Pleistocene and Miocene age, commonly separated by interbeds of other rock types and (or) soil horizons. These basalt flows lie approximately in a horizontal plane, but have been subjected to considerable faulting. -- Scott, et. al., 1997, and Hinkle, 1996, USGS WRI95-4272.


Map, 1929 USGS topo map of Underwood Mountain area, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Underwood Mountain
  1. 1929 Map (section of original), from Hood River 1:125,000 topographic quadrangle. (Click to enlarge). Original map surveyed in 1925-26, contour interval of 100 feet. Little White Salmon River is on the left and White Salmon River is on the right. Mitchell Point is on the Oregon side. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  2. 2003, Underwood Mountain, Washington, as seen from Hood River, Oregon. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Geology of the Underwood Mountain Area:
Geologic mapping in the region, compiled by Korosec (1987), identifies three principal geologic units in the area: Grande Ronde Basalt, Frenchman Springs Member of the Wanapum Basalt, and Basalt of Underwood Mountain. The Grande Ronde Basalt is composed of Miocene flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. The Grande Ronde Basalt is the thickest formation in the Columbia River Basalt Group, and it commonly exceeds 1,000 feet in thickness. The Frenchman Springs Member of the Wanapum Basalt overlies the Grande Ronde Basalt. In this area, the Frenchman Springs Member crops out in the cliffs above the Spring Creek Fish Hatchery, and the hatchery springs discharge from the member of the Wanapum Basalt. The Frenchman Springs Member is a series of Miocene flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. The thickness of these flows in this area is unknown, but in its type locality, the Frenchman Springs Member is 250 feet thick. The Basalt of Underwood Mountain overlies the Frenchman Springs Member and is widely exposed on Underwood Mountain and Underwood Heights. Basalt of Underwood Mountain is a Pleistocene unit composed of numerous blocky, jointed flows, each about 10 to 30 feet thick. The total thickness of the Basalt of Underwood Mountain reaches at least 590 feet. -- Hinkle, 1996, USGS WRI95-4272



Opposite to this creek [White Salmon River] is a large sandbar, which continues for four miles along the left side of the river. Just below this a beautiful cascade falls in on the left over a precipice of rock one hundred feet in height [???, near Mitchell Point]. One mile further are four Indian huts in the low ground on the left: and two miles beyond this a point of land on the right, where the mountains become high on both sides, and possess more timber and greater varieties of it than hitherto, and those on the left are covered with snow. One mile from this point we halted for the night at three Indian huts on the right [near the mouth of the Little White Salmon River] having made thirty-two miles. ......
"... Here the mountains are high on each Side, those to the Lard. Side has Some Snow on them at this time, more timber than above and of greater variety. ..." [Clark, October 29, 1805]


Along the Journey - October 29, 1805
Map, Little White Salmon River, 1887

Little White Salmon River:
The Little White Salmon River originates in the Gifford Pinchot National Forest west of Monte Cristo Peak in south-central Washington and enters Drano Lake near Cook, Washington. Drano Lake, a backwater created by impoundment of the Columbia River, enters Bonneville Reservoir at River Mile 162. Lewis and Clark did not observe this drainage but marked its course on the route map, based on information obtained from the local inhabitants. "Little Lake Creek" was a description and not intended as a place name for the unseen drainage. The corps camped the evening of October 29, 1805, near a "Pond" close to the northern shore and marked the little lake on their route map. The present place name derived from its association to the larger upstream drainage in the same region. This body of water is now known as Drano Lake, but the physiography has been changed by backwaters from Bonneville Dam and highway construction. -- Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Website, 2002, and Washington State Historical Society Website, 2002


Map, 1999, Mount Adams and Vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1887, Cascade Locks vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1887, White Salmon vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1929 USGS topo map of Underwood Mountain area, click to enlarge Map, 1985, Little White Salmon River and Drano Lake, click to enlarge Image, ca.1938, Along the banks of the Columbia, Cook to Underwood, click to enlarge
  1. 1999 Map, Mount Adams and Vicinity, showing drainages into the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Includes the Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and Klickitat River in Washington State, and the Hood River in Oregon. Map modified from Vallance, 1999, USGS Bulletin 2161.
  2. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the Cascade Locks vicinity, including the Little White Salmon River. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  3. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the White Salmon River, including the Little White Salmon River. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  4. 1929 Map (section of original), from Hood River 1:125,000 topographic quadrangle. (Click to enlarge). Original map surveyed in 1925-26, contour interval of 100 feet. Little White Salmon River is on the left and White Salmon River is on the right. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  5. 1985 Map (section of original), Little White Salmon River and Drano Lake, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Bonneville to The Dalles, 1985, Chart#18531, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  6. ca.1938, Along the banks of the Columbia - Cook to Underwood, Washington State. (Click to enlarge). Image from the Washington State Department of Transportation Archives 1936-1938 Biennial Report. -- Washington State Department of Transportation Website, 2003



Along the Journey - October 29, 1805
The Camp - October 29, 1805:
Lewis and Clark camped on the Washington side of the Columbia, upstream of the Little White Salmon River, at a village near a "Pond". Today the Washington town of Cook is located at the mouth of the Little White Salmon River, and the "Pond" is today's Drano Lake.



 
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