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The Volcanoes of
Lewis and Clark
November 5, 1805
Heading to the Pacific - Ridgefield to Prescott Beach
 
Home
The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark

Map of the Journey
Volcanoes, Basalt Plateaus, Major Rivers, etc.

The Volcanoes
Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, Mount Rainier, and Mount St. Helens

CALENDAR of the Journey
October 1805 to June 1806

Along the Journey
Pacific Northwest Maps - Columbia River, Volcanoes, Flood Basalts, Missoula Floods, Geology, etc.

The Corps of Discovery
The Journey of Lewis and Clark

About the Reference Materials
The Journals, Biddle/Allen, DeVoto, Gass, Moulton, Topo Maps, and others

USGS Lewis and Clark Links
Links to USGS Websites highlighting the Lewis and Clark Journey

Resources
Publications Referenced and Websites Visited


PREVIOUS

November 4
Vancouver, Washington, Columbia River Slough to Ridgefield NWR
November 5

Heading to the Pacific,
Ridgefield NWR to Prescott Beach, Oregon

Ridgefield NWR, Bachelor Island, Lewis River, Warrior Point, Multnomah Channel, Sauvie Island, St. Helens (Oregon), Mount St. Helens, Mount Adams, and Mount Hood, Martin Bluff, Deer Island, Goble Volcanics, Kalama River, Prescott Beach, Coast Range, Puget Trough and the Willamette Valley, Boring Lava Field
CONTINUE

November 6
Heading to the Pacific, Prescott Beach to Wallace Island
 

On October 7, 1805, Lewis and Clark and the "Corps of Discovery" began their journey down the Clearwater River and into the volcanics of the Pacific Northwest. The Corps travelled from the Clearwater to the Snake and down the "Great Columbia", finally reaching the Pacific Ocean on November 15, 1805. Along the journey they encountered the lava flows of the Columbia Plateau, river channels carved by the great "Missoula Floods", and the awesome beauty of five Cascade Range volcanoes.

Map, Lewis and Clark in the Pacific Northwest, click for brief
                         summary
[Click map for brief summary about the area]


 
To the Pacific - November 1805
Heading to the Pacific - Ridgefield to Prescott Beach
 

Lewis and Clark's camp of November 4, 1805, was in today's Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge.

Tuesday, November 5, 1805
Our choice of a camp had been very unfortunate; for on a sand island opposite to us [???] were immense numbers of geese, swan-ducks, and other wild fowl, who, during the whole night, serenaded us with a confusion of noises which completely prevented our sleeping. [Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge] During the latter part of the night it rained, and we therefore willingly left our encampment at an early hour.
"... Rained all the after part of last night, rain continues this morning, I lept but verry little last night for the noise Kept dureing the whole of the night by the Swans, Geese, white & Grey Brant Ducks &c. on a Small Sand Island close under the Lard. Side; they were emensely noumerous, and their noise horid ..." [Clark, November 5, 1805]


Along the Journey - November 5, 1805
Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, 2003

Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge:
The Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge Complex is comprised of five refuges located in the southwest part of the state of Washington: Ridgefield north of Vancouver; Conboy in the southcentral part of the state; and Franz Lake, Pierce and Steigerwald Lake all located in the Columbia River Gorge. The refuge north of Vancouver, Washington, was established in 1965 in response to a need to establish vital winter habitat for the dusky Canada goose whose nesting areas in Alaska were severly impacted by the violent earthquake of 1964. This refuge is the location of two Lewis and Clark campsites (November 4, 1805 and March 29, 1806), and is an ancient Chinook townsite visited by the Expedition. In their journals, Lewis and Clark described the wapato plants that were harvested by the Chinook women, as well as, the geese and ducks that kept them awake at night. These species are still here today. Trails, auto tour, and wildlife viewing. Located 14 miles north of Vancouver, Washington. -- U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Website, 2002, Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Website, 2002, and Lewis and Clark Bicentennial in Oregon Website, 2002


Map, 1887, Lewis River vicinity, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River, Deer Island to the Willamette River, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge
  1. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the Lewis River vicinity. (Click to enlarge). Today's Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge is located below the Lewis River. Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  2. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River from Deer Island to the Willamette River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - north-northeast-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River from Deer Island to the Willamette River, including the Lewis River, Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, and the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, October 1994. The Columbia River is flowing from lower right to upper left in this image (southeast to northwest). Washington State is the upper right of the image and Oregon is to the bottom left. NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-025. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  3. 2003, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


We passed at three miles a small prairie, where the river is only three quarters of a mile in width. ...... At eight miles we came to the lower point of an island [the island there today is Bachelor Island], separated from the right side by a narrow channel [Bachelor Island Slough],


Along the Journey - November 5, 1805
Bachelor Island and Mount St. Helens, 2003

Bachelor Island:
Lewis and Clark first called the island "Green Bryor Isd," when they traveled downriver in 1805 but changed the name to "Quathlahpotle Island" in 1806. They honored the large village of 14 wooden houses and 900 inhabitants on the mainland, naming the island for the native village. The present name is of local origin, in honor of an unmarried man who took a donation claim on the island. Bachelor Island is now part of the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge. -- Washington State Historical Society Website, 2002, "Lasting Legacy"


Map, 1887, Lewis River vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1988, Downstream end of Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, Multnomah Channel, Lewis River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River, Deer Island to the Willamette River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1992, Columbia River upstream of Vancouver, showing Bachelor Island, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Bachelor Island with Mount St. Helens
  1. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the Lewis River vicinity, including Bachelor Island. (Click to enlarge). Bachelor Island, while not named on the map, is the island south (below) the Lewis River. Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  2. 1988 Map, Downstream end of Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, Multnomah Channel, Lewis River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Saint Helens to Vancouver, 1988, Chart#18524, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  3. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River from Deer Island to the Willamette River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - north-northeast-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River from Deer Island to the Willamette River, including the Lewis River, Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, and the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, October 1994. The Columbia River is flowing from lower right to upper left in this image (southeast to northwest). Washington State is the upper right of the image and Oregon is to the bottom left. NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-025. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  4. 1992, NASA Image, Closer-in, Columbia River upstream of Vancouver, Washington, showing Bachelor Island and the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - west-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River upstream of Vancouver, Washington, September 1992. Bachelor Island is on the right side of the image, just barely discernible as an island (light colored yellowish area). Bachelor Island Slough separates Bachelor Island from the mainland. The area next to the Columbia on the right and the left side of Bachelor Island is part of the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge. The upper half of the image is Sauvie Island, with the Willamette River on it's left, the Columbia River on the bottom, and the Multnomah Channel on the upper side. NASA Earth from Space #STS047-096-066. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  5. 2003, Bachelor Island, Washington, with Mount St. Helens in the distance. (Click to enlarge). View as seen from Sauvie Island, Oregon. Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


on which, a short distance above the end of the island, is situated a large village ...... the front has fourteen houses, which are ranged for a quarter of a mile along the channel. ......

The Lewis River enters the Columbia River at the downstream end of Bachelor Island. Lewis and Clark missed the mouth of the Lewis River on their journey in 1805, but noted it in the journals on March 29, 1806, on the return.


Along the Journey - November 5, 1805
Lewis River, 2004

Lewis River:
The Lewis River is merges with the Columbia River at River Mile (RM) 87. The watershed is approximately 93 miles long, has a total fall of approximately 12,000 feet, drains an area of about 1,050 square miles, and comprises two large drainages, the North Fork and East Fork, which converge approximately 3.5 miles upriver from the confluence with the Columbia River. The headwaters of the Lewis arise on the southern flanks of Mount St. Helens and Mount Adams. The mainstem of the Lewis, also known as the North Fork, flows southwesterly through three impoundments, Swift Reservoir (RM 48), Yale Reservoir (34), and Merwin Lake (RM 19.5). The majority of the Lewis River basin is forested, typical of the southern Washington Cascade Mountains. However, an area of approximately 30 square miles within the upper basin was denuded by the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens The major tributaries within the Lewis River system below Merwin Dam include the East Fork Lewis River, Johnson Creek, and Cedar Creek. The basin has a complex geologic history, having undergone Tertiary volcanism, several glaciations, and interglacial erosion and deposition. Lewis and Clark used "Chah wah na hi ook River" to identify a "Small river" that entered the Columbia on the north shore. Their name was a figurative form of the Chinookan term for "enemies." In 1853 a railroad surveyor charted the river as "Cathlapootle," a distortion of a common name for the river used by early explorers, fur traders, and settlers. Today the river is named for Adolphus Lee Lewis, a descendent of an Hudson Bay Company employee who homesteaded near the river's mouth. -- Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Website, 2004, and Washington State Historical Society, 2004, "Lasting Legacy"


Map, 1978, Mount St. Helens and its stream drainages, click to enlarge Map, 1999, Mount Adams and Vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Fort Vancouver area, click to enlarge Map, 1887, Lewis River vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1988, Downstream end of St. Helens, Oregon, and Lewis River, Washington, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River, Deer Island to the Willamette River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River and Crim's Island vicinity, click to enlarge Image, ca.1914, Lewis River Bridge, click to enlarge Image, 2004, Lewis River, at mouth looking upstream
  1. 1978 Map, Mount St. Helens and Vicinity, and its major river drainages. (Click to enlarge). Swift Creek, Pine Creek, and the Muddy River drain the southern flanks of Mount St. Helens and drain into the Lewis River. The Kalama River drains west into the Columbia River. The North and South Fork Toutle Rivers drain to the north west and enter the Cowlitz (a tributary from Mount Rainier), which drains into the Columbia River south of Longview, Washington. Map modified from Crandell and Mullineaux, 1978, USGS Bulletin 1383-C.
  2. 1999 Map, Mount Adams and Vicinity, with major river drainages. (Click to enlarge). The headwaters of the Lewis River are shown on the left of the map. Map also includes the Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and Klickitat River which flow into the Columbia River. Map modified from Vallance, 1999, USGS Bulletin 2161.
  3. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows the Lewis River ("Chah-wah-nahi-ooks R."). From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  4. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Fort Vancouver area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Longview, Washington (Monticello), Coweeman River (Minter R.), Kalama River (Ca-la-ma R.), Lewis River (Cath-la-pootle R.), Willamette River, Fort Vancouver, Cape Horn, and "The Cascades". Vancouver Lake is depicted but not labeled. Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  5. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the Lewis River vicinity. (Click to enlarge). Bachelor Island, while not named on the map, is the island south (below) the Lewis River. Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  6. 1988 Map, St. Helens, Oregon, and Lewis River, Washington (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Upper section: Columbia River, Crims Island to Saint Helens, 1988, Chart#18523, 1:40,000, Lower section: Columbia River, Saint Helens to Vancouver, 1988, Chart#18524, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  7. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River from Deer Island to the Willamette River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - north-northeast-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River from Deer Island to the Willamette River, including the Lewis River, Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, and the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, October 1994. The Columbia River is flowing from lower right to upper left in this image (southeast to northwest). Washington State is the upper right of the image and Oregon is to the bottom left. NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-025. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  8. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River at the junction with the Lewis River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - north-northeast-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River at the spot where the Lewis River enters, October 1994. In this photograph, the Columbia River is running from right to left, with Washington State to the east (upper 3/4 of image) and Oregon to the west (lower left quarter). Lake Merwin, created by Merwin Dam, is shown in the upper right corner. NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-025. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  9. ca.1914, Lewis River Bridge. (Click to enlarge). Bridge crossing the Lewis River, near Woodland, Washington. Image from the Washington State Department of Transportation Archives, 1912-1914 Biennial Report. -- Washington State Department of Transportation Website, 2003
  10. 2004, Lewis River, Washington, at mouth looking upstream. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2004 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


The river here again widens to the space of a mile and a half. As we descended we soon observed, behind a sharp point of rocks [Warrior Point on Sauvie Island],


Along the Journey - November 5, 1805
Warrior Point:
Both the northern quarter-mile of the tip of Sauvie Island (Warrior Point) and the usually submerged Warrior Rock are composed of the hard black Columbia River basalt that also underlies the city of St. Helens, Oregon. These basalts are part of the series of lava flows that came down the ancestral Columbia River valley 12 million to 14 million years ago. Warrior Rock is a basalt reef that lies beneath the surface of the Columbia River during high water, near the east side of Sauvie Island, three-quarters of a mile south of its northern tip. Warrior Rock takes it name from Warrior Point, the prominent basalt pinnacle that stands 38 feet above sea level near the north end of Sauvie Island. Nathaniel Wyeth of Boston established a temporary fort in 1832 at Warrior Point. -- Allen, 1985, Time Travel in Oregon, and St. Helens Chamber of Commerce Website, 2003


a channel a quarter of a mile wide [Multnomah Channel],


Along the Journey - November 5, 1805
Multnomah Channel and the Sauvie Island Bridge, 2003

Multnomah Channel:
Multnomah Channel has also been known as the Willamette Slough (1887 map). The channel separates Sauvie Island from mainland Oregon, and is a favorite recreation spot of boaters.


Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Fort Vancouver area, click to enlarge Map, 1887, Sauvie Island vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1988, Downstream end of Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, Multnomah Channel, Lewis River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River, Deer Island to the Willamette River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River upstream of Vancouver, showing Sauvie Island, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Multnomah Channel and Sauvie Island Bridge
  1. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) The Multnomah Channel is shown on the map but not named (southwest side of "Wappato I."). From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  2. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Fort Vancouver area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). The Multnomah Channel is depicted on the west (left) side of Sauvie Island (depicted but not named). Includes Longview, Washington (Monticello), Coweeman River (Minter R.), Kalama River (Ca-la-ma R.), Lewis River (Cath-la-pootle R.), Willamette River, Fort Vancouver, Cape Horn, and "The Cascades". Vancouver Lake is depicted but not labeled. Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  3. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the Sauvie Island vicinity. (Click to enlarge). Bachelor Island, while not named on the map, is the island south (below) the Lewis River (upper right). The Willamette Slough is today called the Multnomah Channel. Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  4. 1988 Map, Downstream end of Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, Multnomah Channel, Lewis River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Saint Helens to Vancouver, 1988, Chart#18524, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  5. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River from Deer Island to the Willamette River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - north-northeast-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River from Deer Island to the Willamette River, including the Lewis River, Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, and the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, October 1994. The Columbia River is flowing from lower right to upper left in this image (southeast to northwest). Washington State is the upper right of the image and Oregon is to the bottom left. NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-025. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  6. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River and Sauvie Island (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - north-northeast-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River and Sauvie Island, Oregon, October 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-025. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  7. 2003, Multnomah Channel and Sauvie Island Bridge, taken from Oregon Highway 30. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


which we suppose must be the one taken by the canoes yesterday on leaving Image-canoe island [the upstream end of Sauvie Island, on the 1805 journey down the Columbia, Lewis and Clark did not separate Sauvie Island from Hayden Island.].


Along the Journey - November 5, 1805
Sauvie Island pumpkin patch, 2003

Sauvie Island:
Sauvie Island contains approximately 24,000 acres of land and lakes, and had its origin in alluvial deposits from the Columbia and Willamette rivers as their velocities decreased by changes in direction and by lava extrusions located on the north end. The island is 16 miles long and 4.5 miles at the widest point. The Sauvie Island wildlife area includes 8,053 acres of deeded land and 3,490 acres of land leased from the Division of State Lands for wildlife management purposes. The island is bounded on the east by the Columbia River; on the south by the Willamette River and on the west by the Multnomah Channel. Across the river on the Washington side, Scappoose Bay provides fish and wildlife habitat. -- Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Website, 2002, Oregon State Archives Website, 2002, and Washington State Historical Society Website, 2002


Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Fort Vancouver area, click to enlarge Map, 1887, Sauvie Island vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1988, Downstream end of Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, Multnomah Channel, Lewis River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River, Deer Island to the Willamette River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River upstream of Vancouver, showing Sauvie Island, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1992, Columbia River with Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1992, Columbia River upstream of Vancouver, showing Sauvie Island, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Multnomah Channel and Sauvie Island Bridge Image, 2003, Sauvie Island
  1. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows Sauvie Island ("Wappato I."). From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  2. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Fort Vancouver area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Sauvie Island is depicted but not named. Includes Longview, Washington (Monticello), Coweeman River (Minter R.), Kalama River (Ca-la-ma R.), Lewis River (Cath-la-pootle R.), Willamette River, Fort Vancouver, Cape Horn, and "The Cascades". Vancouver Lake is depicted but not labeled. Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  3. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the Sauvie Island vicinity. (Click to enlarge). Bachelor Island, while not named on the map, is the island south (below) the Lewis River. Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  4. 1988 Map, Downstream end of Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, Multnomah Channel, Lewis River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Saint Helens to Vancouver, 1988, Chart#18524, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  5. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River from Deer Island to the Willamette River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - north-northeast-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River from Deer Island to the Willamette River, including the Lewis River, Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, and the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, October 1994. The Columbia River is flowing from lower right to upper left in this image (southeast to northwest). Washington State is the upper right of the image and Oregon is to the bottom left. NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-025. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  6. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River and Sauvie Island (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - north-northeast-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River and Sauvie Island, Oregon, October 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-025. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  7. 1992, NASA Image, Columbia River, Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - west-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River with Government Island, the Sandy River, Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington, September 1992. The Columbia River is flowing from bottom (east) to top (west). NASA Earth from Space #STS047-096-066. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  8. 1992, NASA Image, Columbia River upstream of Vancouver, Washington, showing Bachelor Island and the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - west-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River upstream of Vancouver, Washington, September 1992. Bachelor Island is on the right side of the image, just barely discernible as an island (light colored yellowish area). Bachelor Island Slough separates Bachelor Island from the mainland. The area next to the Columbia on the right and the left side of Bachelor Island is part of the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge. The upper half of the image is Sauvie Island, with the Willamette River on it's left, the Columbia River on the bottom, and the Multnomah Channel on the upper side. NASA Earth from Space #STS047-096-066. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  9. 2003, Multnomah Channel and Sauvie Island Bridge, taken from Oregon Highway 30. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.
  10. 2003, Sauvie Island pumpkin patch. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


A mile below the channel [Multnomah Channel] are some low cliffs of rocks [on the left bank is the location of today's St. Helens, Oregon]


Along the Journey - November 5, 1805
St. Helens, Oregon, map, 1887

St. Helens, Oregon:
St. Helens, Oregon, is a deep-water seaport located on the Columbia River 29 miles northwest of Portland, and 66 miles southwest of Astoria. The hard black Columbia River basalt which underlies the city of St. Helens is part of the series of lava flows that came down the ancestral Columbia River valley 12 million to 14 million years ago. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark passed the rocky bluffs on which St. Helens was later to be built, in the winter of 1805 on their journey to the Pacific Ocean. In 1854, Columbia County was created, being formerly a part of Washington County. After a heated battle, St. Helens was named the county seat in August 1903. The old courthouse made of locally quarried stone, was built in 1906. The resent town site was chartered by an act of the Legislature on February 25, 1889. The post office was established in 1853. Views can be seen of Mount Hood, Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens. -- Allen, 1985, Time Travel in Oregon, and St. Helens Chamber of Commerce Website, 2003


Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1887, Lewis River vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1988, Downstream end of St. Helens, Oregon, and Lewis River, Washington, click to enlarge
  1. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  2. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the Lewis River vicinity. (Click to enlarge). Bachelor Island, while not named on the map, is the island south (below) the Lewis River. Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  3. 1988 Map, St. Helens, Oregon, and Lewis River, Washington (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Upper section: Columbia River, Crims Island to Saint Helens, 1988, Chart#18523, 1:40,000, Lower section: Columbia River, Saint Helens to Vancouver, 1988, Chart#18524, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004


near which is a large island on the right side, and two small islands a little further on. Here we met two canoes ascending the river. At this place the shore on the right becomes bold and rocky, [Martin Bluff] and the bank is bordered by a range of high hills covered with a thick growth of pine:


Along the Journey - November 5, 1805
Geology of Martin Bluff:
Andesitic to rhyolitic tuff (Eocene), pumiceous lapilli tuff, and pumiceous and lithic tuff breccia lithologically similar to tuff of the Goble Volcanics unit. Well-exposed in cliffs along the east bank of the Columbia River near Martin Bluff, in nearby railroad cuts, and along Interstate Highway 5 northeast of Martin Island. -- Evarts, 2002


Map, 1988, Deer Island, Oregon and Martin Bluff, Washington, click to enlarge
  1. 1988 Map, Deer Island, Oregon, and Martin Bluff, Washington (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Upper section: Columbia River, Crims Island to Saint Helens, 1988, Chart#18523, 1:40,000, Lower section: Columbia River, Saint Helens to Vancouver, 1988, Chart#18524, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004


on the other side is an extensive low island [Deer Island], separated from the left side by a narrow channel.


Along the Journey - November 5, 1805
Deer Island Map, 1887

Deer Island:
Deer Island is Holocene and Pleistocene alluvium, unconsolidated, poorly sorted to well-sorted, massive to laminated, commonly cross-stratified sand, silt, and minor gravel of the Columbia River floodplain. Locally includes fine-grained lacustrine, aeolian, and organic-rich marsh deposits. -- Evarts, 2002


Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1887, Kalama vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1887, Lewis River vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1988, Deer Island, Oregon and Martin Bluff, Washington, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River, Crim's Island to Deer Island, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River, Deer Island to the Willamette River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River and Deer Island, click to enlarge
  1. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows Deer Island ("Deer I."). From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  2. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the Kalama vicinity, including Deer Island. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  3. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the Lewis River vicinity, including Deer Island. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  4. 1988 Map, Deer Island, Oregon, and Martin Bluff, Washington (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Upper section: Columbia River, Crims Island to Saint Helens, 1988, Chart#18523, 1:40,000, Lower section: Columbia River, Saint Helens to Vancouver, 1988, Chart#18524, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  5. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River from Crim's Island to Deer Island (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - north-northeast-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River from Crim's Island to Deer Island, including the Cowlitz River, October 1994. The Columbia River is flowing right to left in this image (east to west). Washington State is the upper half of the image (north) and Oregon is to the bottom half (south). NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-025. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  6. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River from Deer Island to the Willamette River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - north-northeast-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River from Deer Island to the Willamette River, including the Lewis River, Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, and the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, October 1994. The Columbia River is flowing from lower right to upper left in this image (southeast to northwest). Washington State is the upper right of the image and Oregon is to the bottom left. NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-025. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  7. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River and Deer Island (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - north-northeast-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River and Deer Island, Oregon, October 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-025. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002


Here we stopped to dine [Deer Island], and found the island open, with an abundant growth of grass, and a number of ponds well supplied with fowls; and at the lower extremity are the remains of an old village. We procured a swan, several ducks, and a brant, and saw some deer on the island. Besides this island, the lower extremity of which is seventeen miles from the channel just mentioned, we passed two or three smaller ones in the same distance. Here the hills on the right retire from the river, leaving a high plain [location of today's Woodland, Washington, on the flood plains of the Lewis River], between which, on the left bank, a range of high hills running southeast and covered with pine, forms a bold and rocky shore. At the distance of six miles, however, these hills again return and close the river on both sides [near Goble, Oregon and Kalama, Washington].


Along the Journey - November 5, 1805
Goble Volcanics:
The thick sequence of basaltic flows and pyroclastic rocks (late Eocene-early Oligocene) that crop out on both sides of the Columbia River in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon are mapped as Goble Volcanics in Oregon, and informal or lithologic names are applied to the rocks on the Washington side. The type area is the vicinity of Goble, Oregon, where a thickness of more than 5,000 feet was mapped by Wilkingson and others (1946). The volcanics form cliffs along the Columbia River (and today's Interstate-5) for several miles. Subaerial lava flows, agglomerates, and oxidized soil horizons are typical features of the cliff exposures. The basalt is generally fresh, fine grained, and has masses of iddingsite scattered throughout along with microphenocrysts of plagioclase and pyroxene. Rock types include pillow, columnar or hackly jointed, massive or vesicular basalt flows and dikes. -- Armentrout, etc., 1980, and Evarts, 2002


Map, 1988, Goble Oregon, Sandy Island, Kalama, Washington, click to enlarge
  1. 1988 Map, Goble, Oregon, Sandy Island, Kalama, Washington (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Upper section: Columbia River, Crims Island to Saint Helens, 1988, Chart#18523, 1:40,000, Lower section: Columbia River, Saint Helens to Vancouver, 1988, Chart#18524, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004


We proceeded on, and at four miles reached a creek on the right [Kalama River], about twenty yards in width, immediately below which is an old village.


Along the Journey - November 5, 1805
Kalama River, 2003

Kalama River:
Lewis and Clark used "Cath la haws Creek" on their return trip to identify this drainage on the north bank of the Columbia. Their name was an attempt to identify the tribe that resided on the "creek." Early fur traders anglicized the Indian word to "Kalama" to identify the river. Today several versions of the name's origin exist, shrouding the meaning of the original origin. The Kalama River begins on the southwest slope of Mount St. Helens and flows 44.5 miles westsouthwest to enter the Columbia River at River Mile (RM) 73. It has a drainage are of 205 square miles. The topography is mountainous, averaging 1,880 feet, and climaxing near 8,000 feet on Mount St. Helens. Much of the landscape was formed over the last 20,000 years as a result of Mount St. Helens' volcanic activity. Lahars (mudflows) traveled down many of the Kalama basin?s drainages, leaving unconsolidated volcanic deposits that have a tendency to erode on steep slopes. -- Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Website, 2004, and Washington State Historical Society Website, 2004, "Lasting Legacy".


Map, 1978, Mount St. Helens and Vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Fort Vancouver area, click to enlarge Map, 1887, Kalama vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1988, Kalama River, Washington, and Prescott area, Oregon, click to enlarge Image, ca.1918, Kalama River Bridge, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Kalama River
  1. 1978 Map, Mount St. Helens and Vicinity, and its major river drainages. (Click to enlarge). Swift Creek, Pine Creek, and the Muddy River drain the southern flanks of Mount St. Helens and drain into the Lewis River. The Kalama River drains west into the Columbia River. The North and South Fork Toutle Rivers drain to the north west and enter the Cowlitz (a tributary from Mount Rainier), which drains into the Columbia River south of Longview, Washington. Map modified from Crandell and Mullineaux, 1978, USGS Bulletin 1383-C.
  2. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Fort Vancouver area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Longview, Washington (Monticello), Coweeman River (Minter R.), Kalama River (Ca-la-ma R.), Lewis River (Cath-la-pootle R.), Willamette River, Fort Vancouver, Cape Horn, and "The Cascades". Vancouver Lake is depicted but not labeled. Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  3. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the Kalama vicinity. (Click to enlarge). On this map the Kalama River is not name, however it is the small river just above the town of Kalama. Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  4. 1988 Map, Kalama River, Washington, and Prescott area, Oregon (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Saint Helens to Vancouver, 1988, Chart#18524, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  5. ca.1918, Kalama River Bridge. (Click to enlarge). Pacific Highway Bridge crossing the Kalama River, Washington. Image from the Washington State Department of Transportation Archives 1916-1918 Biennial Report. -- Washington State Department of Transportation Website, 2003
  6. 2003, Kalama River, Washington, looking upstream. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.



Three miles further, and at the distance of thirty-two miles from our camp of last night, we halted under a point of highland, with thick pine trees on the left bank of the river. [Prescott Beach County Park] ......


Along the Journey - November 5, 1805
Prescott Beach, Oregon, 2003

Prescott Beach:
Prescott Beach hosts one of the Columbia River's finest fishing and windsurfing sites. The beach also features a covered picnic shelter, playground equipment, a beautiful gazebo, a horse shoe pit and sand volleyball courts. Prescott is day-use only, opening one hour before sunrise and closing one hour after sunset. Located 14 miles north of St. Helens, and five miles south of Rainier. Turn off U.S. 30 onto Graham Road. 1.75 miles to park entrance. -- Columbia County Forests, Parks, and Recreation Website, 2004


Map, 1988, Kalama River, Washington, and Prescott area, Oregon, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Prescott Beach, Oregon
  1. 1988 Map, Kalama River, Washington, and Prescott area, Oregon (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Saint Helens to Vancouver, 1988, Chart#18524, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  2. 2003, Prescott Beach County Park, Oregon, looking downstream. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


The river is here deep, and about a mile and a half in width. Here too the ridge of low mountains [The Coast Range] running northwest and southeast,


Along the Journey - November 5, 1805
Coast Range:
The Coast Ranges, which border the entire west coast of the United States from the Olympic Peninsula south to Mexico, vary greatly in both rock type and climate. Upper Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks predominate, although intrusive and metamorphic rocks are also present. Most rocks have been folded, faulted, and in places intensely sheared; many of the Tertiary rocks are poorly consolidated. Topography is mountainous, with steep slopes and intervening flat valleys. Precipitation in the Coast Ranges is seasonal, ranging from very wet in parts of the northern ranges to semiarid in the south, with periodic storms accompanied by intense rainfall. The combination of steep slopes, soft, sheared rocks, and periods of heavy precipitation makes this subdivision, particularly in California, one of the most landslide prone areas of the United States. Tectonic melange, especially that of the Franciscan assemblage, is especially slide prone; landslides on natural slopes are common in all three categories of slide, fall, and flow. Debris flows during rainstorms are a particular hazard in southern California, where much of the area is heavily developed, so that many landslides have been artificially activated. The Coast Ranges are seismically active, and earthquakes have triggered many landslides. -- Radbruch-Hall, et.al., 1982, USGS Professional Paper 1183


cross the river, and form the western boundary of the plain through which we have just passed [The Willamette Valley/Puget Trough]. This great plain or valley begins above the mouth of Quicksand river [Sandy River], and is about sixty miles wide in a straight line, while on the right and left it extends to a great distance: it is a fertile and delightful country, shaded by thick groves of tall timber, watered by small ponds, and running on both sides of the river. The soil is rich, and capable of any species of culture; but in the present condition of the Indians, its chief production is the wappatoo root, which grows spontaneously and exclusively in this region. Sheltered as it is on both sides, the temperature is much milder than that of the surrounding country; for even at this season of the year we observe very little appearance of frost. During its whole extent it is inhabited by numerous tribes of Indians, who either reside in it permanently, or visit its waters in quest of fish and wappatoo roots: we gave it the name of the Columbia valley.


Along the Journey - November 5, 1805
Puget Trough and Willamette Valley:
The Puget-Willamette Lowlands extend from the United States-Canadian border south to Eugene, Oregon, between the Coast Ranges and the Cascade Mountains. The climate is subhumid to humid. The northern part is a flat glacial plain interrupted by the complex bays and inlets of Puget Sound. The southern part of the lowlands consists of alluvial valleys along the Cowlitz, Columbia, and Willamette Rivers. Most of Oregon's population, technology and agricultural centers, and important transportion, power, and communications lifelines are located in the Willamette Valley of western Oregon. The lowlands of the Willamette Valley extend about 75 miles along the Willamette River and contain the major cities of Portland, Salem, Corvallis, and Eugene. The valley is part of the Willamette River drainage basin, which covers 12,300 square miles between the crest of the Oregon Coast Range on the west and the Cascade Range to the east. The Willamette River is the largest river in the valley and is fed by several major tributaries, including the McKenzie, Calapooia, Santiam, Tualatin, Yamhill, and Clakamas Rivers. The valley is the major source of ground and surface water for the population centers. -- Radbruch-Hall, et.al., 1982, USGS Professional Paper 1183, and Givler and Wells, 2001


Map, the Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1833, Illman and Pilbrow, Columbia River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Willamette Valley, click to enlarge
  1. Map, The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, including Geologic Provinces and major Geographic Features (Click to enlarge). Map created by Lyn Topinka, USGS/CVO, 2002; Geologic Provinces based on "USGS/NPS Geology in the Parks" Website, 2002. -- USGS/CVO Web Graphics Collection, 2004
  2. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Lewis and Clark marked the valley on the map and labeled it "Wappatoo Valley". From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  3. 1833 Map (section of original), Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Includes Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson. Note: Mount Baker is depicted (upper middle) but Mounts Adams, Rainier and St. Helens are missing. The Columbia River is shown as "Oregon River" at its mouth and "Columbia or Oregon R." further inland. "Wappatoo Valley" is labeled. Also shows Fort Clatsop ("F. Clatsop or F. George"), the Willamette River ("Multnomah R."), Sandy River ("Quicksand R."), John Day River ("R.La Page"), Walla Walla River ("Wallwullah R."), Snake River ("Lewis R."), and the Yakima River ("Tapete R."). Original Map: Oregon Territory, 1833. Creator: Illman & Pilbrow, published by Illman & Pilbrow, New York. Comments: Illman & Pilbrow is the engraving firm which copyrighted and published this map, the actual artist is unknown. Washington State University Digital Maps Collection #WSU323. University of Washington Digital Maps Collection #UW104. -- Washington State University Early Washington Maps Digital Collection Website, 2004
  4. 1994, NASA Image, Aerial view of Washington and Oregon, including the Willamette Valley. (Click to enlarge). NASA Astronaut Photography of Earth #STS068-276-55, October 3, 1994. -- NASA Astronaut Photography of Earth Website, 2002


Geology of the Willamette Valley:
The Willamette valley consists of four sub-basins: the southern and northern Willamette basins, the Tualatin basin, and the Portland basin. The Waldo Hills separate the southern Willamette basin from the northern basin, and the Chehalem Mountains separate the northern basin from the Tualatin Basin. Northeast of the Tualatin basin, the Tualatin Mountains form the divide with the Portland Basin. The Willamette Valley lies within a fore-arc basin between the Cascade Volcanic Arc and the Coast Ranges that may have originated in early Tertiary time. Some of the sub-basins have accumulated several hundred meters of sediment in late Cenozoic time. The northern basins also contain lavas of the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). Flows of the CRBG entered the valley approximately 16 million years ago through a low in the Cascade Range and spread into the Portland and northern Willamette basins. The Tualatin Mountains, Chehalem Mountains, Waldo Hills, and Salem Hills are largely composed of CRBG flows that dip inward toward the basin centers. Approximately 3.0 million to 260,000 years ago, the Boring Lavas were erupted from several vents throughout the northern Willamette, Portland, and Tualatin basins. Boring Lavas capped the Oregon City plateau and created many of the prominent small cone-shaped hills and mountains southeast of downtown Portland. Between 15,000 and 12,700 years ago catastrophic floods from glacial Lake Missoula inundated the majority of the Willamette Valley. These floods reached up to 120 meters above sea level covering the valley with up to 35 meters of sediment and depositing ice-rafted boulders foreign to the Willamette Valley as far south as Eugene, Oregon. -- Gannett and Caldwell


Boring Lava Field:
Metropolitan Portland, Oregon, and an area east of Vancouver, Washington, includes most of a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic field. which erupted from several vents throughout the northern Willamette, Portland, and Tualatin basins. The field was identified by Trimble in 1963, who named it after the hills east of Portland. It consists of at least 50 small monogenetic centers, composed chiefly of mafic andesite. The eruptive features mostly are short stubby lava flows, who compositions are very similar to comparable units in the High Cascades. The field ranges in age from about 3 to 1 million years. -- Allen, 1990, IN: Wood and Kienle, and Hammond, 1989.


Map, Boring Lava Vents, click to enlarge Engraving detail, 1879, Portland Oregon and Mount Hood, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Columbia River and Rocky Butte, Oregon
  1. Map, Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington, and the Boring Lava Field. Location and elevation of 95 vents. -- Allen, 1975
  2. 1879, Detail of engraving of Portland, Oregon, Mount Hood, and Boring Lava cones. (Click to enlarge). The Columbia River is just visible, middle left. The Willamette River is in the foreground. Also visible are cones of the Boring Lava Field, middleground. Created by E.S. Glover. Published 1879, San Francisco. "Bird's-eye-view", looking east to the Cascade Mountains. Original lithograph shows Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, Mount Adams, and Mount Hood, and also the Columbia River and the Willamette River. Reference #LC Panoramic Maps #722. -- Library of Congress American Memories Website, 2002
  3. 2003, Looking across the Columbia River at the Rocky Butte, a Boring Lava cone. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Along the Journey - November 5, 1805
The Camp - November 5, 1805:
Lewis and Clark's camp of November 5, 1805, was "under a point of high ground, with thick pine trees", near the location of Prescott Beach County Park, Oregon.



 
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