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The Volcanoes of
Lewis and Clark
March 30, 1806
Vancouver, Washington - Ridgefield to Ryan Point
 
Home
The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark

Map of the Journey
Volcanoes, Basalt Plateaus, Major Rivers, etc.

The Volcanoes
Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, Mount Rainier, and Mount St. Helens

CALENDAR of the Journey
October 1805 to June 1806

Along the Journey
Pacific Northwest Maps - Columbia River, Volcanoes, Flood Basalts, Missoula Floods, Geology, etc.

The Corps of Discovery
The Journey of Lewis and Clark

About the Reference Materials
The Journals, Biddle/Allen, DeVoto, Gass, Moulton, Topo Maps, and others

USGS Lewis and Clark Links
Links to USGS Websites highlighting the Lewis and Clark Journey

Resources
Publications Referenced and Websites Visited


PREVIOUS

March 29
Heading Home, Deer Island to Ridgefield NWR
March 30

Vancouver, Washington
Ridgefield NWR to Ryan Point

Sauvie Island, Ridgefield NWR, Vancouver Lake and Vancouver Lake County Park, FIVE VOLCANOES, Fort Plain, Fort Vancouver and Vancouver (Washington), Fort Vancouver National Historical Site, Hayden Island, Interstate-5 Bridge, Columbia Shores area near Ryan Point, Mount Jefferson, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Hood
CONTINUE

March 31
On the Banks of the Columbia, Ryan Point to Cottonwood Beach Camp
 

On October 7, 1805, Lewis and Clark and the "Corps of Discovery" began their journey down the Clearwater River and into the volcanics of the Pacific Northwest. The Corps travelled from the Clearwater to the Snake and down the "Great Columbia", finally reaching the Pacific Ocean on November 15, 1805. Along the journey they encountered the lava flows of the Columbia Plateau, river channels carved by the great "Missoula Floods", and the awesome beauty of five Cascade Range volcanoes.

Map, Lewis and Clark in the Pacific Northwest, click for brief
                         summary
[Click map for brief summary about the area]


 
Heading for Home - March 1806
Vancouver, Washington - Ridgefield to Ryan Point
 

Lewis and Clark's camp of March 29, 1806, was at the west end of today's Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge.

Sunday, March 30, 1806
Soon after our departure ...... We passed, also, several fishing camps, on Wappatoo island [Sauvie Island],


Along the Journey - March 30, 1806
Sauvie Island pumpkin patch, 2003

Sauvie Island:
Sauvie Island contains approximately 24,000 acres of land and lakes, and had its origin in alluvial deposits from the Columbia and Willamette rivers as their velocities decreased by changes in direction and by lava extrusions located on the north end. The island is 16 miles long and 4.5 miles at the widest point. The Sauvie Island wildlife area includes 8,053 acres of deeded land and 3,490 acres of land leased from the Division of State Lands for wildlife management purposes. The island is bounded on the east by the Columbia River; on the south by the Willamette River and on the west by the Multnomah Channel. Across the river on the Washington side, Scappoose Bay provides fish and wildlife habitat. -- Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Website, 2002, Oregon State Archives Website, 2002, and Washington State Historical Society Website, 2002


Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Fort Vancouver area, click to enlarge Map, 1887, Sauvie Island vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1988, Downstream end of Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, Multnomah Channel, Lewis River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River, Deer Island to the Willamette River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River upstream of Vancouver, showing Sauvie Island, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1992, Columbia River with Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1992, Columbia River upstream of Vancouver, showing Sauvie Island, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Multnomah Channel and Sauvie Island Bridge Image, 2003, Sauvie Island
  1. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows Sauvie Island ("Wappatoo I."). Map also includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is to the south (bottom) and off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  2. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Fort Vancouver area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Sauvie Island is depicted but not named. Includes Longview, Washington (Monticello), Coweeman River (Minter R.), Kalama River (Ca-la-ma R.), Lewis River (Cath-la-pootle R.), Willamette River, Fort Vancouver, Cape Horn, and "The Cascades". Vancouver Lake is depicted but not labeled. Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  3. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the Sauvie Island vicinity. (Click to enlarge). Bachelor Island, while not named on the map, is the island south (below) the Lewis River. Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  4. 1988 Map, Downstream end of Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, Multnomah Channel, Lewis River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Saint Helens to Vancouver, 1988, Chart#18524, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  5. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River from Deer Island to the Willamette River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - north-northeast-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River from Deer Island to the Willamette River, including the Lewis River, Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, and the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, October 1994. The Columbia River is flowing from lower right to upper left in this image (southeast to northwest). Washington State is the upper right of the image and Oregon is to the bottom left. NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-025. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  6. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River and Sauvie Island (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - north-northeast-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River and Sauvie Island, Oregon, October 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-025. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  7. 1992, NASA Image, Columbia River, Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - west-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River with Government Island, the Sandy River, Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington, September 1992. The Columbia River is flowing from bottom (east) to top (west). NASA Earth from Space #STS047-096-066. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  8. 1992, NASA Image, Columbia River upstream of Vancouver, Washington, showing Bachelor Island and the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - west-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River upstream of Vancouver, Washington, September 1992. Bachelor Island is on the right side of the image, just barely discernible as an island (light colored yellowish area). Bachelor Island Slough separates Bachelor Island from the mainland. The area next to the Columbia on the right and the left side of Bachelor Island is part of the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge. The upper half of the image is Sauvie Island, with the Willamette River on it's left, the Columbia River on the bottom, and the Multnomah Channel on the upper side. NASA Earth from Space #STS047-096-066. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  9. 2003, Multnomah Channel and Sauvie Island Bridge, taken from Oregon Highway 30. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.
  10. 2003, Sauvie Island pumpkin patch. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


and then halted for breakfast on the north side of the river, near our camp of the 4th of November [in Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge]. Here we were visited by several canoes from two villages on Wappatoo island [Sauvie Island]; the first, about two miles above us, is called Clahnaquah, the other a mile above them, has the name of Multnomah. ......


Along the Journey - March 30, 1806
Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, 2003

Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge:
The Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge Complex is comprised of five refuges located in the southwest part of the state of Washington: Ridgefield north of Vancouver; Conboy in the southcentral part of the state; and Franz Lake, Pierce and Steigerwald Lake all located in the Columbia River Gorge. The refuge north of Vancouver, Washington, was established in 1965 in response to a need to establish vital winter habitat for the dusky Canada goose whose nesting areas in Alaska were severly impacted by the violent earthquake of 1964. This refuge is the location of two Lewis and Clark campsites (November 4, 1805 and March 29, 1806), and is an ancient Chinook townsite visited by the Expedition. In their journals, Lewis and Clark described the wapato plants that were harvested by the Chinook women, as well as, the geese and ducks that kept them awake at night. These species are still here today. Trails, auto tour, and wildlife viewing. Located 14 miles north of Vancouver, Washington. -- U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Website, 2002, Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Website, 2002, and Lewis and Clark Bicentennial in Oregon Website, 2002


Map, 1887, Lewis River vicinity, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River, Deer Island to the Willamette River, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge
  1. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the Lewis River vicinity. (Click to enlarge). Today's Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge is located below the Lewis River. Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  2. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River from Deer Island to the Willamette River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - north-northeast-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River from Deer Island to the Willamette River, including the Lewis River, Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, and the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, October 1994. The Columbia River is flowing from lower right to upper left in this image (southeast to northwest). Washington State is the upper right of the image and Oregon is to the bottom left. NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-025. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  3. 2003, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


"... about 5 miles Still higher up and on the N E. Side we halted for brackfast at the place which We had encamped the 4th of November last. here we were visited by several canoes of Indians from two Towns a Short distance above on the Wappato Island. ... at 10 a.m. we Set out and had not proceeded far before we came to a landing place where there was Several large canoes hauled up, and Sitting in a canoe, appaearantly waiting our arival with a view to join the fleet indian who was then along Side of us. this man informed he was a 'Shoto' and that his nation resided a little distance from the river. we landed an one of the indians pointed to the Shoto village which is Situated back of Pond which lies parrelal with the river on the N E. Side nearly opposit the Clan-nah quah village. ..." [Clark, March 30, 1806]

Lewis and Clark are passing Sauvie Island on their right (left bank of the Columbia), and the Vancouver Lake area on their left (right bank of the Columbia).


Along the Journey - March 30, 1806
Vancouver Lake County Park with Mount St. Helens, 2003

Vancouver Lake and Vancouver Lake County Park:
Vancouver Lake lies just north and west of Vancouver, Washington. Vancouver Lake County Park is a 234-acre park, bordering Vancouver Lake for 2.5 miles, with thirty-five acres of developed land. Picnicking, play structure, windsurfing, and sand volleyball number among the activities that can be enjoyed here. Swimming is allowed in a cordoned swimming area. No lifeguards are on duty. In addition, Vancouver Lake is the site of many college and professional rowing competitions during the year. Vancouver Lake County Park is also a wetlands haven for wildlife and migratory waterfowl. -- Vancouver Parks and Recreation Website, 2003


Map, 1854, Columbia River, Fort Vancouver area, click to enlarge Map, 1988, Mouth of the Willamette and Vancouver Lake, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1992, Columbia River at the Mouth of the Willamette, click to enlarge Image, 1990, Columbia River looking west, Vancouver Lake, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Vancouver Lake and Mount St. Helens
  1. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Fort Vancouver area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Vancouver Lake is depicted but not named. Includes Longview, Washington (Monticello), Coweeman River (Minter R.), Kalama River (Ca-la-ma R.), Lewis River (Cath-la-pootle R.), Willamette River, Fort Vancouver, Cape Horn, and "The Cascades". Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  2. 1988 Map, Mouth of the Willamette River and Vancouver Lake (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Saint Helens to Vancouver, 1988, Chart#18524, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  3. 1992, NASA Image, Columbia River at the mouth of the Willamette (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - West-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River with Government Island, September 1992. Portland, Oregon is to the left and Vancouver, Washington is to the right. NASA Earth from Space #STS047-096-066. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  4. 1990, Aerial view, Columbia River looking west, with Vancouver Lake on the right. (Click to enlarge). Columbia River at Portland and Vancouver, looking west. Oregon is to the left and Washington State is to the right. Vancouver Lake is on the right. Photographer: Bob Heims. Photograph Date: June 21, 1990. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Photo Archives #Col0502.jpg -- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Photo Archives Website, 2003
  5. 2003, Vancouver Lake County Park with Mount St. Helens in the distance. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


There are good views of Mount St. Helens, Mount Adams, and Mount Hood from Vancouver Lake. On a clear day, Mount Rainier and Mount Jefferson can also be seen.


Along the Journey - March 30, 1806
Mount St. Helens from Vancouver Lake, 2003

Mount St. Helens, Washington:
as seen from Vancouver Lake, Washington. Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.

Mount Adams from Vancouver Lake, 2003

Mount Adams, Washington:
as seen from Vancouver Lake, Washington. Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.

Mount Hood from Vancouver Lake, 2003

Mount Hood, Oregon:
as seen from Vancouver Lake, Washington. Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.

Mount Rainier from Vancouver Lake, 2003

Mount Rainier, Washington (circled):
as seen from Vancouver Lake, Washington. Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.

Mount Jefferson from Vancouver Lake, 2003

Mount Jefferson, Oregon (circled):
as seen from Vancouver Lake, Washington. Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


About sunset we reached a beautiful prairie [Fort Plain, site of today's Vancouver, Washington, area around Fort Vancouver and Pearson Airpark, to Ryan Point],


Along the Journey - March 30, 1806
Mount Hood and Pearson Field, 2004

Fort Plain:
The area between Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, Pearson Airpark, and Ryan Point, was once called "Fort Plain", a former area of prairie and wetlands that formed a highly productive location for native food resources. In the mid-19th century, this place was called "Fort Plain" through its association with the Hudson's Bay Company's Fort Vancouver. Prehistoric artifacts found at Fort Vancouver National Historic Site confirm that American Indians occupied Fort Plain long before Lewis & Clark arrived. Fort Plain has been identified as a Lewis and Clark stopping place associated with their travels down the Columbia River on November 4, 1805, and a campsite during their travels up the Columbia on March 30, 1806. The journals identify a small prairie and pond at the upstream point of a large island, corresponding to modern Tomahawk Island. -- U.S. National Park Service, Fort Vancouver Historic Reserve Website, 2003


Map, 1985, Hayden Island to Portland International Airport, click to enlarge Image, 2004, Mount Hood, Oregon, and Pearson Field, Vancouver, Washington
  1. 1985 Map, Hayden Island to Portland International Airport (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Vancouver, Washington, Interstate 5 Bridge, Hayden and Tomahawk Islands, Ryan Point, and Portland International Airport (PDX). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Vancouver to Bonneville, 1985, Chart#18531, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  2. 2004, Mount Hood, Oregon, and Pearson Field, Vancouver, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2004 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Fort Vancouver, 2004

Fort Vancouver:
In May, 1792, American trader/sailor Robert Gray became the first non-native to enter the fabled "Great River of the West," the Columbia River. Later that year, British Lt. William Broughton, serving under Capt. George Vancouver, explored 100 miles upriver. Along the way, he named a point of land along the shore in honor of his commander. In 1806, American explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark camped near the Vancouver waterfront on the return leg of their famed western expedition. Lewis characterized the area as "the only desired situation for settlement west of the Rocky Mountains." In 1825, Dr. John McLoughlin decided to move the northwest headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company from Astoria to a more favorable setting upriver. He named the site after Point Vancouver on Broughton's original map. Fort Vancouver was thus born. The new site was on the north bank of the Columbia, slightly upstream from the mouth of the Willamette River on the opposite side. The fort itself, after an initial, arduous four years on a nearby bluff, would be built on a plain with easy access to the water, but just beyond the flood plain. The surrounding environment was broad areas of prairie and trees, sloping upward to dense fir forests; it was known as Jolie Prairie or Belle Vue Point because of its intense natural beauty. McLoughlin's superiors were well pleased with the choice, not only for its situation, but most importantly for its rich pasture and amenable climate. -- City of Vancouver Website, 2002, and U.S. National Park Service Website, Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, 2002


Map, 1849, Alexander Ross's Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Fort Vancouver area, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Vancouver to the Pacific, click to enlarge Map, 1887, Portland and Vancouver vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1985, Hayden Island to Portland International Airport, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1992, Columbia River with Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1992, Columbia River at the Mouth of the Willamette, click to enlarge Image, 1990, Columbia River looking west, Vancouver Lake, click to enlarge Engraving, 1850, Fort Vancouver and Mount Hood, click to enlarge Image, 2004, Fort Vancouver, from the inside
  1. 1849 Map (section of original), Alexander Ross's Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: Map of the Columbia to illustrate Ross's adventures. Author: Alexander Ross; Publication Date: 1849; Publisher: London, Smith, Elder and Co., 1849. Washington State University Archives #WSU478. -- Washington State University Early Washington Maps Digital Collection Website, 2004
  2. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  3. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Fort Vancouver area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Longview, Washington (Monticello), Coweeman River (Minter R.), Kalama River (Ca-la-ma R.), Lewis River (Cath-la-pootle R.), Willamette River, Fort Vancouver, Cape Horn, and "The Cascades". Vancouver Lake is depicted but not labeled. Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  4. 1855 Map, Columbia River from Vancouver to the Pacific (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  5. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the Portland and Vancouver vicinity. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  6. 1985 Map, Hayden Island to Portland International Airport (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Vancouver, Washington, Interstate 5 Bridge, Hayden and Tomahawk Islands, Ryan Point, and Portland International Airport (PDX). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Vancouver to Bonneville, 1985, Chart#18531, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  7. 1992, NASA Image, Columbia River, Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - west-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River with Government Island, Sandy River, Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington, September 1992. The Columbia River is flowing from bottom (east) to top (west). NASA Earth from Space #STS047-096-066. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  8. 1992, NASA Image, Columbia River at the mouth of the Willamette (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - West-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River with Government Island, September 1992. Portland, Oregon is to the left and Vancouver, Washington is to the right. NASA Earth from Space #STS047-096-066. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  9. 1990, Aerial view, Columbia River looking west, with Vancouver Lake on the right. (Click to enlarge). Columbia River at Portland and Vancouver, looking west. Oregon is to the left and Washington State is to the right. Vancouver Lake is on the right. Photographer: Bob Heims. Photograph Date: June 21, 1990. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Photo Archives #Col0502.jpg -- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Photo Archives Website, 2003
  10. 1850 Engraving, Fort Vancouver, with Mount Hood in the background. (Click to enlarge). Engraving by: Gustave Sohon, November 1850. Image from U.S. War Dept.'s Reports of explorations and surveys to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, 1860, v. 12, pt.1, pl.44. University of Washington Libraries Collection #NA4171. -- University of Washington Archives Website, 2002
  11. 2004, Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, from inside the fort. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2004 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Fort Vancouver National Historic Site:
Fort Vancouver became a National Monument in 1948 and a National Historic Site in 1961. In 1996, the 366-acre Vancouver National Historic Reserve was established to protect adjacent, historically significant historical areas. It includes Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, as well as Vancouver Barracks, Officers' Row, Pearson Field, The Water Resources Education Center, and portions of the Columbia River waterfront. The General O.O. Howard House serves as the visitor center for the Reserve, and is staffed by National Park Service personnel. -- U.S. National Park Service Website, Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, 2002


opposite the middle of what we had called Image-canoe island [Hayden Island],


Along the Journey - March 30, 1806
Map, Hayden Island, 1895

Hayden Island:
Lewis and Clark called this island "Image Canoe Island", because of the ornamented native canoes that they observed on its shore. Today the island is named after Guy Hayden, an early Oregon pioneer, who once owned the island. -- Washington State Historical Society Website, 2004, "Lasting Legacy"


Map, 1887, Portland and Vancouver vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1895, Hayden Island, click to enlarge Map, 1985, Hayden Island to Portland International Airport, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1992, Columbia River with Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1992, Columbia River, Willametter River, and Hayden Island, click to enlarge
  1. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the Portland and Vancouver vicinity, including Hayden Island. (Click to enlarge). Hayden Island, while not named, is the long island between Vancouver, Washington and Portland, Oregon. The diamond-shaped island upstream (to the right) is Government Island. Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  2. 1895 Map, Hayden Island (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original map: "Columbia River, Vancouver Wash. to Mouth of Willamette River, 1895". Survey Septembaer 1893 mad under the direction of Major James C. Post, Corps of Engineers, U.S.A. Washington State University Archives #WSU575. -- Washington State University Archives Website, 2004
  3. 1985 Map, Hayden Island to Portland International Airport (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Vancouver, Washington, Interstate 5 Bridge, Hayden and Tomahawk Islands, Ryan Point, and Portland International Airport (PDX). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Vancouver to Bonneville, 1985, Chart#18531, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  4. 1992, NASA Image, Columbia River, Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - west-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River with Government Island, Hayden Island, Lady Island, Sandy River, Washougal River, and Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington, September 1992. The Columbia River is flowing from bottom (east) to top (west). NASA Earth from Space #STS047-096-066. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  5. 1992, NASA Image, Columbia River, Willamette River, and Hayden Island (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - west-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River, Willamette River, and Hayden Island, September 1992. Near the top of the photo the Willamette River meets the Columbia River. Just upstream (below on photo) is Hayden Island, just barely discernible as an island in this view from space. The lower half (eastern) of Hayden Island is commercially developed while the upper half (western) of Hayden Island is open space. The Interstate-5 bridge is visible crossing the Columbia River from Portland Oregon (left) to Vancouver, Washington (right). NASA Earth from Space #STS047-096-066. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002


Between 1915 and 1917, the Interstate-5 bridge was constructed, connecting Hayden Island, Oregon, with Vancouver, Washington.


Along the Journey - March 30, 1806
Interstate 5 Bridge, 2003

Interstate-5 Bridge:
Between 1915 and 1917, one of the largest bridges ever built up until this time was constructed over the Columbia River, between Vancouver, Washington and Hayden Island, Oregon. This bridge was more than a feat of engineering -- its construction signified an unprecedanted degree of co-operation between the citizens of Multnomah County, Oregon and Clark County, Washington who, dissatisfied with the inadequacies of the existing ferry system - the only connecting link for pedestrians and automobiles in this vicinity - eagerly rallied to the cause of an interstate bridge campaign. The bridge paved the way for a new era in automobile transportaion in the region, an era that developed so rapidly that a second, almost identical structure had to be bult alongside it some forty years later to keep pace with the enormous increase in interstate traffic. Dates of construction: 1915-1917 northbound, and 1956 southbound. -- U.S. Library of Congress Website, 2003, "American Memories"


Map, 1985, Hayden Island to Portland International Airport, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1992, Columbia River, Willamette River, and Hayden Island, click to enlarge Image, 1993, Interstate-5 bridge spanning the Columbia from Vancouver to Portland, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Interstate 5 Bridge
  1. 1985 Map, Hayden Island to Portland International Airport (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Vancouver, Washington, Interstate 5 Bridge, Hayden and Tomahawk Islands, Ryan Point, and Portland International Airport (PDX). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Vancouver to Bonneville, 1985, Chart#18531, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  2. 1992, NASA Image, Columbia River, Willamette River, and Hayden Island (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - West-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River, Willamette River, and Hayden Island, September 1992. Near the top of the photo the Willamette River meets the Columbia River. Just upstream (below on photo) is Hayden Island, just barely discernible as an island in this view from space. The lower half (eastern) of Hayden Island is commercially developed while the upper half (western) of Hayden Island is open space. The Interstate-5 bridge is visible crossing the Columbia River from Portland Oregon (left) to Vancouver, Washington (right). NASA Earth from Space #STS047-096-066. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  3. 1993, Interstate 5 Bridge spanning the Columbia River from Vancouver, Washington (right) to Portland, Oregon (left). (Click to enlarge). The 1915-1917 bridge is in the foreground with the 1956 span visible behind. -- U.S. Library of Congress Website, 2003, American Memories
  4. 2004, Interstate 5 Bridge crossing the Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). View is from Hayden Island, Oregon, looking back at Vancouver, Washington. Copyright © 2004 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


and having made twenty-three miles, encamped for the night [downstream of Ryan Point, Washington, and upstream of the Interstate 5 Bridge]. In the prairie [Fort Plain] is a large pond or lake [one of the ponds near Fort Vancouver, now filled in], and an open grove of oak borders the back part. There are many deer and elk in the neighbourhood, but they are very shy, and the annual fern which is now abundant and dry, make such a rustling as the hunters pass through it, that they could not come within reach of the game, and we obtained nothing but a single duck.
"... Encamped in a Small Prarie above a large Pond on N. E and opposit the Center of image Canoe Island. ..." [Clark, March 30, 1806]


Along the Journey - March 30, 1806
Columbia Shores area, Washington, 2004

Columbia Shores area near Ryan Point:
Mount Hood, Oregon, is visible from Lewis and Clark's campsite of March 30, 1806. Today this location is where Columbia River Drive meets Columbia Shores Boulevard. Just upstream is Ryan Point, and just downstream is Vancouver, Washington, and the Interstate 5 Bridge.


Map, 1985, Hayden Island to Portland International Airport, click to enlarge Image, 2004, Columbia Shores area, Washington, campsite of March 30, 1806
  1. 1985 Map, Hayden Island to Portland International Airport (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Vancouver, Washington, Interstate 5 Bridge, Hayden and Tomahawk Islands, Ryan Point, and Portland International Airport (PDX). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Vancouver to Bonneville, 1985, Chart#18531, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  2. 2004, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Columbia Shores area, Washington, location of Lewis and Clark's campsite of March 30, 1806. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2004 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


" ... we made 22 Miles only to day the wind and a Strong current being against us all day, with rain. discovered a high mountain S E. Covered with Snow which we call Mt. Jefferson ..." [Clark, March 30, 1806]


Along the Journey - March 30, 1806
Mount Jefferson, Oregon, from Columbia Shores, Washington, area, 2004

Mount Jefferson:
Mount Jefferson (10,495 feet) is a prominent feature of the landscape seen from highways east and west of the Cascades. Mount Jefferson is one of thirteen major volcanic centers in the Cascade Range. It has erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, with its last eruptive episode during the last major glaciation which culminated about 15,000 years ago.


Map, the Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Vancouver to the Pacific, click to enlarge Map, 1860, Columbia River, Washington, Oregon, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River, Mount Hood, and Mount Jefferson, click to enlarge Image, Mount Jefferson, Oregon, as seen from Highway 97 Image, 2004, Mount Jefferson, Oregon, as seen from Columbia Shores area, Washington
  1. Map, "Lewis and Clark Volcano Sitings"
  2. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Map includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is just visible to the south (bottom) and Mount Rainier is to the north but off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  3. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  4. 1855 Map, Columbia River from Vancouver to the Pacific, including Mount Jefferson (section of original) (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. Mount Hood is depicted but not named. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  5. 1860 Map, Columbia River, Washington State, and Oregon (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: Map of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, (1860). This map dates between March 2nd, 1861 (when the Dakota Territory was formed) and March 4th, 1863 (when the Idaho Territory was formed from eastern Washington and western Dakota) Nearing retirement from a thirty year long and rather successful career, S. Augustus Mitchell printed this map showcasing Oregon, the Territory of Washington, and British Columbia. Washington became a territory in 1853, arguing that distances to Willamette Valley kept them from obtaining a voice in the Oregon territorial government. As this map shows, when it split from Oregon proper the Washington territory included parts of Wyoming and Montana and all of Idaho. Territorial government for Idaho would not be approved until 1863. When Mitchell retired he left the business for his son to manage. Washington State University Archives #WSU7. -- Washington State University Archives, 2004
  6. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River looking north, with Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson (Click to enlarge). View from space - Columbia River, Mount Hood, and Mount Jefferson, north-looking low-oblique photograph, NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-032. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  7. Image, Mount Jefferson, Oregon, as seen from Eastern Oregon. (Click to enlarge). Image taken from Highway 97. Photographer: Lyn Topinka. -- USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory Photo Archives, 2004
  8. 2004, Mount Jefferson, Oregon, as seen from the Columbia Shores area, Washington. (Click to enlarge). On March 30, 1806, at this campsite, Lewis and Clark named Mount Jefferson. Copyright © 2004 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


" ... we had a view of mount St. helines and Mount Hood. the 1st is the most noble looking object of it's kind in nature. it's figure is a regular cone. both these mountains are perfectly covered with snow; at least the parts of them which are visible. ..." [Lewis, March 30, 1806]
" ... Saw mount rainey [Mount St. Helens] and Mount Hood which is verry white with Snow &C ..." [Ordway, March 30, 1806]
" ... We saw this day Mount Rainey [Mount St. Helens] & Mount hood; they appeared white & was covered with Snow. ..." [Whitehouse, March 30, 1806]


Along the Journey - March 30, 1806
Vancouver, Washington, with Mount St. Helens, 2004

Mount St. Helens:
View from Hayden Island, looking across the Columbia River at Vancouver, Washington, with Mount St. Helens in the background. Mount St. Helens (8,364 feet, 9,677 feet before May 18, 1980) is located in southwestern Washington about 50 miles northeast of Portland, Oregon, and is one of several lofty volcanic peaks that dominate the Cascade Range of the Pacific Northwest. On May 18, 1980, the volcano was transformed. The catastrophic eruption, was preceded by 2 months of intense activity that included more than 10,000 earthquakes, hundreds of small phreatic (steam-blast) explosions, and the outward growth of the volcano's entire north flank by more than 260 feet. A magnitude 5.1 earthquake struck beneath the volcano at 8:32 a.m. on May 18, setting in motion the devastating eruption.


Map, the Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1978, Mount St. Helens and Vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Vancouver to the Pacific, click to enlarge Map, 1860, Columbia River, Washington, Oregon, click to enlarge Image, 1978, Mount St. Helens, before the May 18, 1980 eruption, click to enlarge Image, 1982, Mount St. Helens from Spirit Lake, click to enlarge Image, 2004, Vancouver, Washington, and Mount St. Helens
  1. Map, "Lewis and Clark Volcano Sitings"
  2. 1978 Map, Mount St. Helens and Vicinity, and its major river drainages. (Click to enlarge). Swift Creek, Pine Creek, and the Muddy River drain the southern flanks of Mount St. Helens and drain into the Lewis River. The Kalama River drains west into the Columbia River. The North and South Fork Toutle Rivers drain to the north west and enter the Cowlitz (a tributary from Mount Rainier), which drains into the Columbia River south of Longview, Washington. Map modified from Crandell and Mullineaux, 1978, USGS Bulletin 1383-C.
  3. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Map includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is to the south (bottom) and off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  4. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  5. 1855 Map, Columbia River from Vancouver to the Pacific, including Mount St. Helens (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  6. 1860 Map, Columbia River, Washington State, and Oregon (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: Map of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, (1860). This map dates between March 2nd, 1861 (when the Dakota Territory was formed) and March 4th, 1863 (when the Idaho Territory was formed from eastern Washington and western Dakota) Nearing retirement from a thirty year long and rather successful career, S. Augustus Mitchell printed this map showcasing Oregon, the Territory of Washington, and British Columbia. Washington became a territory in 1853, arguing that distances to Willamette Valley kept them from obtaining a voice in the Oregon territorial government. As this map shows, when it split from Oregon proper the Washington territory included parts of Wyoming and Montana and all of Idaho. Territorial government for Idaho would not be approved until 1863. When Mitchell retired he left the business for his son to manage. Washington State University Archives #WSU7. -- Washington State University Archives, 2004
  7. 1978, View of Mount St. Helens, before the eruption of May 18, 1980. (Click to enlarge). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Photograph #Sce0234. Photograph Date: 1978. Photographer: unknown. From: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Photo Archives. -- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Website, 2002
  8. 1982, USGS Photo showing Mount St. Helens after the May 18, 1980 eruption. The volcano is reflected in Spirit Lake. (Click to enlarge). Photographer: Lyn Topinka, Date: May 19, 1982. -- USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory Photo Archives, 2004
  9. 2004, From Hayden Island, looking across the Columbia River towards Vancouver, Washington, with Mount St. Helens in the background. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2004 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Mount Hood from Ryan Point, 2003

Mount Hood:
Mount Hood, at 11,245 feet high, is the fourth highest peak in the Cascade Range and the highest in the state of Oregon. The peak dominates the skyline from the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area to the wheat fields of Wasco and Sherman Counties of eastern Oregon.


Map, the Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1993, Mount Hood and Vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Vancouver to the Pacific, click to enlarge Map, 1860, Columbia River, Washington, Oregon, click to enlarge Image, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Timberline, click to enlarge Image, 2004, Mount Hood from Ryan Point, March 30, 1806
  1. Map, "Lewis and Clark Volcano Sitings"
  2. 1993 Map, Mount Hood and Vicinity, showing river drainages which flow into the Columbia river. (Click to enlarge). Includes Hood River and the Sandy River. Map modified from: Brantley and Scott, 1993.
  3. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Map includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is to the south (bottom) and off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  4. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  5. 1855 Map, Columbia River from Vancouver to the Pacific, including Mount St. Helens (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  6. 1860 Map, Columbia River, Washington State, and Oregon (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: Map of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, (1860). This map dates between March 2nd, 1861 (when the Dakota Territory was formed) and March 4th, 1863 (when the Idaho Territory was formed from eastern Washington and western Dakota) Nearing retirement from a thirty year long and rather successful career, S. Augustus Mitchell printed this map showcasing Oregon, the Territory of Washington, and British Columbia. Washington became a territory in 1853, arguing that distances to Willamette Valley kept them from obtaining a voice in the Oregon territorial government. As this map shows, when it split from Oregon proper the Washington territory included parts of Wyoming and Montana and all of Idaho. Territorial government for Idaho would not be approved until 1863. When Mitchell retired he left the business for his son to manage. Washington State University Archives #WSU7. -- Washington State University Archives, 2004
  7. Image, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Timberline parking lot. (Click to enlarge). Photographer: Lyn Topinka. -- USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory Photo Archives, 2004
  8. 2003, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Ryan Point, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Along the Journey - March 30, 1806
The Camp - March 30, 1806:
Downstream of Ryan Point, Vancouver, Washington, and upstream of the Interstate 5 Bridge, at present-day Columbia River Drive and Columbia Shores Boulevard. This area is now covered with condominiums.



 
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June/July 2004, Lyn Topinka
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