Pinatubo 1991

Evacuations carried out saved many lives. As early as April 1991, the Philippines Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) and USGS declared a 6-mile radius danger zone around the volcano following results form monitoring and seismicity. An imminent eruption was declared and evacuations commenced. Initial evacuations relocated 20,000 indigenous Aeta population from the slopes. Surrounding low-lying population centers also relocated. 15,000 US military personal evacuated the Clark Air Base prior to the eruption. In total the cost for evacuations, including establishment of evacuation camps and relocation centers, was approximately 2.5 billion pesos ($93 million USD) between 1991-92 (Mercado et al., 1996).

Engineering measures were put in place with the construction of dikes and dams in attempt to control lahars. These cost an estimated 4.2 billion pesos ($154 million USD) between 1991-92 (Mercado et al., 1996).

Damage sustained and the risk from future lahars remobilizing had a negative impact on the economic prosperity of the Luzon region, reducing growth. Efforts need to be established to recover the region so it can return and advance economic and sustainable prosperity for the community. Land-use planning should be applied to areas that cannot be inhabited, used for its previous use such as farmland, or land that is still at risk from lahars to lower the risk from subsequent hazards. Resettlement of the population relocated due to the eruption and following volcanic hazards needs to happen. Reconstruction of infrastructure assets needs to occur for access. Development plans for livelihood such as agricultural rehabilitation programs need to be established to help provide income source for the wider communities where their livelihoods have been destroyed (de Guzman, n.d.).