Rabaul erupted in 1994 in Papua New Guinea.
Ash thickness1 in mm
Estimated load2 in kPa
|Observed damage to roofs|
|<100||1.5 - 2.0||Roofs and guttering generally remained intact.|
|<200||3.0 - 4.0||80-90% of roofs remained intact with little apparent damage. Sagging or partial collapse occurred in some buildings.|
|<300||4.5 - 6.0||More than 50% of roofs did not collapse.|
|500-600||7.5 - 12.0||More than 50% of roofs collapsed.|
|>600||9.0 - 12.0||It is doubtful that buildings survived without significant damage even when the roof remained relatively intact.|
2Using this equation and assuming ash density of 1,500 to 2,000 kg/m3
Data from Blong and McKee, 1995.
The 1994 eruption of Rabaul devastated much of the town of Rabaul, with ash deposits as thick as 2 m. The power supply was shut down at the start of the eruption but large sections of the electrical distribution system were damaged by falling-trees and buildings.