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The Volcanoes of
Lewis and Clark
April 3, 1806
Five Volcanoes and the Willamette River
 
Home
The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark

Map of the Journey
Volcanoes, Basalt Plateaus, Major Rivers, etc.

The Volcanoes
Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, Mount Rainier, and Mount St. Helens

CALENDAR of the Journey
October 1805 to June 1806

Along the Journey
Pacific Northwest Maps - Columbia River, Volcanoes, Flood Basalts, Missoula Floods, Geology, etc.

The Corps of Discovery
The Journey of Lewis and Clark

About the Reference Materials
The Journals, Biddle/Allen, DeVoto, Gass, Moulton, Topo Maps, and others

USGS Lewis and Clark Links
Links to USGS Websites highlighting the Lewis and Clark Journey

Resources
Publications Referenced and Websites Visited


PREVIOUS

April 2
Gathering Provisions, Cottonwood Beach Camp and the Willamette River
April 3

Five Volcanoes and
a Side-Trip Up the Willamette River

Cottonwood Beach, Mount Hood, Portland International Airport, Willamette River, Portland (Oregon), Five Volcanoes - Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, Mount Adams, Mount Hood, and Mount Jefferson, Clark's side-trip up the Willamette, Multnomah Channel, Sauvie Island, Willamette Falls and Oregon City, St. Johns Bridge and Cathedral Park
CONTINUE

April 4-5
Back on the Columbia, The Willamette Valley
 

On October 7, 1805, Lewis and Clark and the "Corps of Discovery" began their journey down the Clearwater River and into the volcanics of the Pacific Northwest. The Corps travelled from the Clearwater to the Snake and down the "Great Columbia", finally reaching the Pacific Ocean on November 15, 1805. Along the journey they encountered the lava flows of the Columbia Plateau, river channels carved by the great "Missoula Floods", and the awesome beauty of five Cascade Range volcanoes.

Map, Lewis and Clark in the Pacific Northwest, click for brief
                         summary
[Click map for brief summary about the area]


 
Heading for Home - April 1806
Five Volcanoes and the Willamette River
 

Between March 31 and April 5, 1806 Lewis and Clark camped near present day Cottonwood Beach, just upstream of Washougal, Washington. From this campsite, William Clark led a group of men back down the Columbia to discover the Willamette River, which they had missed on both their outward and return voyages.

Thursday, April 3, 1806

Since the Chronology of this web presentation is following the Biddle/Allen publication, the report of Clarke's April 2-3 journey up the Willamette River is presented here, April 3, 1806, as told on his return to camp.


A considerable number of Indians crowded us to-day, [Cottonwood Beach Camp] many of whom came from the upper part of the river. These poor wretches confirm the reports of scarcity among the nations above; which, indeed, their appearance sufficiently prove, for they seem almost starved, and greedily picked the bones and refuse meat thrown away by us.


Along the Journey - April 3, 1806
Cottonwood Beach, 2003

Cottonwood Beach:
Between March 31 and April 5, 1806 the Corps of Discovery camped near present day Cottonwood Beach in Washougal. From this campsite, William Clark also led a group of men back down the Columbia to discover the Willamette River, which they had missed on both their outward and return voyages. Presently, the cities of Washougal and Camas, Port of Camas/Washougal, and the Clark County Parks Department, are collaborating on creating a regional park at this location and it has been named Capt. William Clark Park at Cottonwood Beach. -- City of Washougal, Washington, Website, 2002


Map, 1948, Reed Island, Steigerwald Lake, Cottonwood Point, and Point Vancouver, click to enlarge Map, 1948, Reed Island, Steigerwald Lake, Cottonwood Point, and Point Vancouver, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1992, Columbia River and the Sandy River area, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Cottonwood Beach
  1. 1948 Map, Columbia River with Reed Island, Steigerwald Lake, Cottonwood Point, and Point Vancouver. (Click to enlarge). Cottonwood Beach is downstream (left) of Cottonwood Point. Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Vancouver to Bonneville, 1948, Chart#6156, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  2. 1985 Map (section of original), Reed Island, Steigerwald Lake, Cottonwood Point, and Point Vancouver. (Click to enlarge). Cottonwood Beach is downstream (left) of Cottonwood Point. Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Vancouver to Bonneville, 1985, Chart#18531, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  3. 1992, NASA Image, Columbia River and the Sandy River area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - west-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River with Government Island, Lady Island, Reed Island, Sandy River, Washougal River, Cottonwood Beach, and Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington, September 1992. The Columbia River is flowing from bottom (east) to top (west). NASA Earth from Space #STS047-096-066. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  4. 2003, Cottonwood Beach, near Washougal, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


"... From this place Mount Hood bears S. 85o E. distant 40 miles ..." [Lewis, April 3, 1806]


Along the Journey - April 3, 1806
Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Washougal, Washington, 2003

Mount Hood:
Mount Hood, at 11,245 feet high, is the fourth highest peak in the Cascade Range and the highest in the state of Oregon. The peak dominates the skyline from the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area to the wheat fields of Wasco and Sherman Counties of eastern Oregon.


Map, the Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark, click to enlarge Map, 1993, Mount Hood and Vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Vancouver to the Pacific, click to enlarge Map, 1860, Columbia River, Washington, Oregon, click to enlarge Image, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Timberline, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Mount Hood, Oregon, from Washougal, Washington
  1. Map, "Lewis and Clark Volcano Sitings"
  2. 1993 Map, Mount Hood and Vicinity, showing river drainages which flow into the Columbia river. (Click to enlarge). Includes Hood River and the Sandy River. Map modified from: Brantley and Scott, 1993.
  3. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Map includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is to the south (bottom) and off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  4. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  5. 1855 Map, Columbia River from Vancouver to the Pacific, including Mount St. Helens (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  6. 1860 Map, Columbia River, Washington State, and Oregon (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: Map of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, (1860). This map dates between March 2nd, 1861 (when the Dakota Territory was formed) and March 4th, 1863 (when the Idaho Territory was formed from eastern Washington and western Dakota) Nearing retirement from a thirty year long and rather successful career, S. Augustus Mitchell printed this map showcasing Oregon, the Territory of Washington, and British Columbia. Washington became a territory in 1853, arguing that distances to Willamette Valley kept them from obtaining a voice in the Oregon territorial government. As this map shows, when it split from Oregon proper the Washington territory included parts of Wyoming and Montana and all of Idaho. Territorial government for Idaho would not be approved until 1863. When Mitchell retired he left the business for his son to manage. Washington State University Archives #WSU7. -- Washington State University Archives, 2004
  7. Image, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Timberline parking lot. (Click to enlarge). Photographer: Lyn Topinka. -- USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory Photo Archives, 2004
  8. 2003, Mount Hood, Oregon, as seen from Washougal, Washington, across from the mouth of the Sandy River, Oregon. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.



Captain Clark's Side Trip Up the Willamette
Wednesday and Thursday, April 2-3, 1806 - Continued
"... While I was out hunting, Capt. Clarke got information that a large river came in on the south side of the Columbia, about 40 miles below this place, opposite a large island, which had concealed it from our view: and went down with six men to view it. He found it to be a very large river, 500 yards wide, with several nations of Indians living on it; and its source supposed to be near the head waters of some of the rivers, which fall into the gulph of California. On their return they bought some dogs at an Indian village; and last night arroved at camp. ..." [Gass, April 4, 1806]
In the evening captain Clarke returned from his excursion. On setting out yesterday at half past eleven o'clock [Wednesday, April 2], he directed his course along the south side of the river, where, at the distance of eight miles, he passed a village of the Nechacohee tribe, belonging to the Eloot nation [today's Portland Internationl Airport]. ......


Along the Journey - April 2, 1806
Columbia River and Portland International Airport, 2003

Portland International Airport:
Today's Portland International Airport (PDX) was the former site of a Neerchokioo village, used by the Shahala Indians as a temporary residence for gathering wapato, a potato-like water root. Visited twice by Lewis and Clark, the site is now under the airport parking structure. PDX is located 10 miles east of downtown Portland, Oregon. -- Lewis and Clark Bicentennial in Oregon Website, 2002


Map, 1985, Hayden Island to Portland International Airport, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Portland International Airport, Portland, Oregon
  1. 1985 Map, Hayden Island to Portland International Airport (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Vancouver, Washington, Interstate 5 Bridge, Hayden and Tomahawk Islands, Ryan Point, and Portland International Airport (PDX). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Vancouver to Bonneville, 1985, Chart#18531, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  2. 2003, Looking across the Columbia River towards Portland International Airport, Portland, Oregon. (Click to enlarge). Image shot from Ryan Point, Washington. Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


and after lighting his pipe, and smoking with them, he continued down the river. He now found what we had called Image-canoe island [Hayden Island], to consist of three islands, the one in the middle concealing the opening between the other two in such a way, as to present to us on the opposite side of the river, the appearance of a single island. At the lower point of the third, and thirteen miles below the last village, he entered the mouth of a large river [Willamette River], which was concealed by three small islands in its mouth, from those who descend or go up the Columbia. [37 years after Lewis and Clark, Portland, Oregon was established along the banks of the Willamette River]. This river, which the Indians call Multnomah [Willamette River], from a nation of the same name, residing near it on Wappatoo island [Sauvie Island], enters the Columbia, one hundred and forty miles from the mouth of the latter river, of which it may justly be considered as forming one fourth, though it had now fallen eighteen inches below its greatest annual height.
"... at the distance of 13 miles below the last village and at the place I had supposed was the lower point of the image canoe island, I entered this river which the nativs had informed us of, called 'Multonomah' River so called by the nativs from a nation who reside on Wappato Island a little below the enterance of this river. Multnomah discharges itself in the Columbia on the S.E. and may be justly said to be 1/4 the size of that noble river. Multnomah had fallen 18 inches from its greatest annual height. three small Islands are situated in it's mouth which hides the river from view from the Columbia. ..." [Clark, April 2, 1806]


Along the Journey - April 2, 1806
Mouth of the Willamette River, 2003

Willamette River:
Most of Oregon's population, technology and agricultural centers, and important transportion, power, and communications lifelines are located in the Willamette Valley of western Oregon. The lowlands of the Willamette Valley extend approximately 75 miles along the Willamette River and contain the major cities of Portland, Salem, Corvallis, and Eugene. The valley is part of the Willamette River drainage basin, which covers 12,300 square miles between the crest of the Oregon Coast Range on the west and the Cascade Range to the east. The Willamette River is the largest river in the valley and is fed by several major tributaries, including the McKenzie, Calapooia, Santiam, Tualatin, Yamhill, and Clakamas Rivers. The valley is the major source of ground and surface water for the population centers. -- Givler and Wells, 2001


Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1833, Illman and Pilbrow, Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1837, Columbia River with Mount Hood, click to enlarge Map, 1849, Alexander Ross's Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Fort Vancouver area, click to enlarge Map, 1855, Columbia River, Vancouver to the Pacific, click to enlarge Map, 1887, Portland and Vancouver vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1988, Mouth of the Willamette and Vancouver Lake, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1992, Columbia River with Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Mouth of the Willamette River, Oregon
  1. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows the Willamette River (just left of center) entering the Columbia from the south. The Lewis and Clark name "Multnomah R." is cropped in this image. Map includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is to the south (bottom) and off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  2. 1833 Map (section of original), Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Includes Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson. Note: Mount Baker is depicted (upper middle) but Mounts Adams, Rainier and St. Helens are missing. The Columbia River is shown as "Oregon River" at its mouth and "Columbia or Oregon R." further inland. "Wappatoo Valley" is labeled. Also shows Fort Clatsop ("F. Clatsop or F. George"), the Willamette River ("Multnomah R."), Sandy River ("Quicksand R."), John Day River ("R.La Page"), Walla Walla River ("Wallwullah R."), Snake River ("Lewis R."), and the Yakima River ("Tapete R."). Original Map: Oregon Territory, 1833. Creator: Illman & Pilbrow, published by Illman & Pilbrow, New York. Comments: Illman & Pilbrow is the engraving firm which copyrighted and published this map, the actual artist is unknown. Washington State University Digital Maps Collection #WSU323. University of Washington Digital Maps Collection #UW104. -- Washington State University Early Washington Maps Digital Collection Website, 2004
  3. 1837 Map, Columbia River with Mount Hood (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes the "Wallamant or Multnomah R.". Original Map: Map of the Territory West of the Rocky Mountains (1837) Author: Washington Irving, Publisher: Philadelphia, Carey, Lea, & Blanchard. Washington State University Archives #WSU555. -- Washington State University Early Washington Maps Digital Collection Website, 2004
  4. 1849 Map (section of original), Alexander Ross's Columbia River. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: Map of the Columbia to illustrate Ross's adventures. Author: Alexander Ross; Publication Date: 1849; Publisher: London, Smith, Elder and Co., 1849. Washington State University Archives #WSU478. -- Washington State University Early Washington Maps Digital Collection Website, 2004
  5. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  6. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Fort Vancouver area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes Longview, Washington (Monticello), Coweeman River (Minter R.), Kalama River (Ca-la-ma R.), Lewis River (Cath-la-pootle R.), Willamette River, Fort Vancouver, Cape Horn, and "The Cascades". Vancouver Lake is depicted but not labeled. Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  7. 1855 Map, Columbia River from Vancouver to the Pacific (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Original Map: "Map of Oregon and Washington Territories: showing the proposed Northern Railroad route to the Pacific Ocean, by John Disturnell, 1855. University of Washington Archives #UW155. -- University of Washington Library Collections Website, 2002
  8. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the Portland and Vancouver vicinity, including the Willamette River. (Click to enlarge). Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  9. 1988 Map, Mouth of the Willamette River and Vancouver Lake (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Saint Helens to Vancouver, 1988, Chart#18524, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  10. 1992, NASA Image, Columbia River, Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - west-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River with Government Island, the Sandy River, Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington, September 1992. The Columbia River is flowing from bottom (east) to top (west). NASA Earth from Space #STS047-096-066. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  11. 2003, Mouth of the Willamette River, Oregon, as seen from Blurock Landing, Washington. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Portland, Oregon, 1988

Portland, Oregon:
In 1843, Tennessee drifter William Overton and Massachusetts lawyer Asa Lovejoy beached their canoe on the banks of the Willamette River. Overcome by the beauty of the area, Overton saw great potential for this mountain-ringed, timber-rich land. His only problem was that he lacked the 25 cents needed to file a land claim. So, he struck a bargain with Lovejoy -- In return for a quarter, Overton would share his claim to the 640-acre site known as "The Clearing." Soon bored with clearing trees and building roads, Overton drifted on, selling his half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove. The new partners, Lovejoy and Pettygrove, couldn't decide on a name for their new township. Lovejoy was determined to name the site after his hometown of Boston, Massachusetts, while Pettygrove was equally adamant about his native Portland, Maine. They decided to flip a coin, now known as the "Portland Penny", to settle the argument. Pettygrove won on two tosses out of three. Lovejoy and Pettygrove were confident that Portland, with its deep water and abundant natural resources, would one day become a popular and prosperous port. Portland was officially incorporated on February 8, 1851, and today covers 130 square miles. -- Portland, Oregon Visitor's Association Website, 2003


Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Image, 1988, Willamette River and Portland, Oregon, click to enlarge
  1. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  2. 1988 view of the Willamette River and the city of Portland, Oregon. Looking south with the Fremont Bridge in the foreground. (Click to enlarge). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Photograph #Sce0373. Photograph Date: June 1988. Photographer: Bob Heims. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Photo Archives. -- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Website, 2002


FIVE VOLCANOES

From its entrance mount Regnier [Mount Rainier] bears nearly north, mount St. Helen's north, with a very high humped mountain a little to the east of it [Mount Adams], which seems to lie in the same chain with the conic-pointed mountains before mentioned. Mount Hood bore due east, and captain Clarke now discovered to the southeast, a mountain which we had not yet seen, and to which he gave the name of mount Jefferson. Like mount St. Helen's its figure is a regular cone covered with snow, and is probably of equal height with that mountain, though being more distant, so large a portion of it does not appear above the range of mountains which lie between these and this point.
"... from the enterance of this river, I can plainly See Mt. Jefferson which is high and Covered with snow S. E. Mt. Hood East, Mt St. Helians a high humped Mountain to the East of Mt St. Helians. I also Saw the Mt. Raneer Nearly North ..." [Clark, April 2, 1806]
"... from the Columbia at the entrance of the Multonomah river Mount Jefferson bears S. E. this is a noble mountain. I think equally as high as Mount St. Helines but it's distance being much greater than that of the latter, so great a portion of it dose not appear above the range of mountains which lie betwen boath those stupendious mountains and this point of view. like M. St. Heleans from the same point boar N , Mount Hood due East, and Mount Ranier nearly North. there is also a very high humped mountain a little to the East of Mount St. Heleans which appears to lie in the same chain with those conic pointed mountains before mentioned. ..." [Lewis, April 6, 1806]
" ... I provaled on an old indian to mark the Multnomah R down on the Sand which hid and perfectly Corisponded with the Sketch given me by sundary others, with the addition of a circular mountain which passes this river at the falls and connects with the mountains of the Seacoast. he also lais down the Clark a mos passing a high Conical Mountain near it's mouth on the lower Side and heads in Mount Jefferson which he lais down by raising the Sand as a very high mountain and Covered with eternal Snow. the high mountain which this Indian lais down near the enterance of Clark a mos river, we have not Seen as the hills in it's direction from this vally is high and obscures the Sight of it from us. Mt. Jefferson we Can plainly See from the enterance of Multnomah from which place it bears S. E. this is a noble Mountain and I think equally as high or Something higher than Mt. St. Heleans but its distance being much greater than that of the latter, So great a portion of it does not appear above the range of mountains which lie between both those Stupendious Mountains and the Mount of Multnomah. like Mt. St. Heleans its figure is a regular Cone and is covered with eturnial Snow. ..." [Clark, April 7, 1806]


Along the Journey - April 2, 1806
Mount Jefferson from Blurock Landing, 2003

Mount Jefferson, Oregon, (circled):
as seen from Blurock Landing, Washington. Blurock Landing is across the Columbia River from the mouth of the Willamette River, Oregon. Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.

Mount Hood from Blurock Landing, 2003

Mount Hood, Oregon:
as seen from Blurock Landing, Washington. Blurock Landing is across the Columbia River from the mouth of the Willamette River, Oregon. Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.

Mount St. Helens from Blurock Landing, 2003

Mount St. Helens, Washington:
as seen from Blurock Landing, Washington. Blurock Landing is across the Columbia River from the mouth of the Willamette River, Oregon. Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.

Mount Adams from Blurock Landing, 2003

Mount Adams, Washington:
as seen from Blurock Landing, Washington. Blurock Landing is across the Columbia River from the mouth of the Willamette River, Oregon. Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.

Mount Rainier from Blurock Landing, 2003

Mount Rainier, Washington:
as seen from Blurock Landing, Washington. Blurock Landing is across the Columbia River from the mouth of the Willamette River, Oregon. Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Captain Clark's Side Trip Up the Willamette ... Continued

Soon after entering the Multnomah [Willamette River] he was met by an old Indian descending the river alone in a canoe. After some conversation with him, the pilot informed captain Clarke, that this old man belonged to the Clackamos nation, who reside on a river forty miles up the Multnomah. The current of this latter river [Clackamas River], is as gentle as that of the Columbia, its surface is smooth and even, and it appears to possess water enough for the largest ship, since, on sounding with a line of five fathoms, he could find no bottom for at least one third of the width of the stream. At the distance of seven miles, he passed a sluice or opening, on the right [Multnomah Channel], eighty yards wide,


Along the Journey - April 2, 1806
Multnomah Channel and the Sauvie Island Bridge, 2003

Multnomah Channel:
Multnomah Channel has also been known as the Willamette Slough (1887 map). The channel separates Sauvie Island from mainland Oregon, and is a favorite recreation spot of boaters.


Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Fort Vancouver area, click to enlarge Map, 1887, Sauvie Island vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1988, Downstream end of Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, Multnomah Channel, Lewis River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River, Deer Island to the Willamette River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River upstream of Vancouver, showing Sauvie Island, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Multnomah Channel and Sauvie Island Bridge
  1. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Multnomah Channel is depicted but not named. Map also includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is to the south (bottom) and off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  2. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Fort Vancouver area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Multnomah Channel is depicted on the west (left) side of Sauvie Island (depicted but not named), separating Sauvie Island from the mainland Oregon. Includes Longview, Washington (Monticello), Coweeman River (Minter R.), Kalama River (Ca-la-ma R.), Lewis River (Cath-la-pootle R.), Willamette River, Fort Vancouver, Cape Horn, and "The Cascades". Vancouver Lake is depicted but not labeled. Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  3. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the Sauvie Island vicinity. (Click to enlarge). Bachelor Island, while not named on the map, is the island south (below) the Lewis River (upper right). The Willamette Slough is today called the Multnomah Channel. Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  4. 1988 Map, Downstream end of Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, Multnomah Channel, Lewis River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Saint Helens to Vancouver, 1988, Chart#18524, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  5. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River from Deer Island to the Willamette River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - north-northeast-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River from Deer Island to the Willamette River, including the Lewis River, Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, and the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, October 1994. The Columbia River is flowing from lower right to upper left in this image (southeast to northwest). Washington State is the upper right of the image and Oregon is to the bottom left. NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-025. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  6. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River and Sauvie Island (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - north-northeast-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River and Sauvie Island, Oregon, October 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-025. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  7. 2003, Multnomah Channel and Sauvie Island Bridge, taken from Oregon Highway 30. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


and which separates Wappatoo island [Sauvie Island] from the continent, by emptying itself into the inlet below.


Along the Journey - April 2, 1806
Sauvie Island pumpkin patch, 2003

Sauvie Island:
Sauvie Island contains approximately 24,000 acres of land and lakes, and had its origin in alluvial deposits from the Columbia and Willamette rivers as their velocities decreased by changes in direction and by lava extrusions located on the north end. The island is 16 miles long and 4.5 miles at the widest point. The Sauvie Island wildlife area includes 8,053 acres of deeded land and 3,490 acres of land leased from the Division of State Lands for wildlife management purposes. The island is bounded on the east by the Columbia River; on the south by the Willamette River and on the west by the Multnomah Channel. Across the river on the Washington side, Scappoose Bay provides fish and wildlife habitat. -- Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Website, 2002, Oregon State Archives Website, 2002, and Washington State Historical Society Website, 2002


Map, 1814, Lewis and Clark on the Columbia, click to enlarge Map, 1854, Columbia River, Fort Vancouver area, click to enlarge Map, 1887, Sauvie Island vicinity, click to enlarge Map, 1988, Downstream end of Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, Multnomah Channel, Lewis River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River, Deer Island to the Willamette River, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1994, Columbia River upstream of Vancouver, showing Sauvie Island, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1992, Columbia River with Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge NASA Image, 1992, Columbia River upstream of Vancouver, showing Sauvie Island, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Multnomah Channel and Sauvie Island Bridge Image, 2003, Sauvie Island
  1. 1814 Map, Lewis and Clark's map of the Columbia River (section of original). (Click to enlarge.) Shows Sauvie Island ("Wappatoo I."). Map also includes three of the five volcanoes Lewis and Clark saw and commented on. While the journals mention the expedition seeing Mount Adams, it does not appear on their map. Mount Jefferson is to the south (bottom) and off the map. From the "Nicholas Biddle/Paul Allen" 1814 publication. Original Map: "A Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, From the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean". From: History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark : to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean : performed during the years 1804-5-6 : by order of the government of the United States / prepared for the press by Paul Allen. Philadelphia : Bradford and Insskeep, 1814. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University #upbover maps37. -- Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website, 2004.
  2. 1853-54 Map, Columbia River, including the Fort Vancouver area (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Sauvie Island is depicted but not named. Includes Longview, Washington (Monticello), Coweeman River (Minter R.), Kalama River (Ca-la-ma R.), Lewis River (Cath-la-pootle R.), Willamette River, Fort Vancouver, Cape Horn, and "The Cascades". Vancouver Lake is depicted but not labeled. Original Map: "Rocky Mountains to Puget Sound : from explorations and surveys / made under the direction of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Isaac I. Stevens Governor of Washington Territory, 1853-4." Inset: (Supplementary sketch) Reconnaissance of the railroad route from Wallawalla to Seattle via Yak-e-mah River & Snoqualmie Pass. By A. W. Tinkham in January 1854. Drawn by J. R. P. Mechlin. 20 x 28 cm. Topographer, John Lambert, Published in Washington D.C., 1859, 1:1,200,000, Notes: From the U.S. War Department, Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Topographical Maps, to Illustrate the Various Reports, U.S. Library of Congress American Memories Reference "LC Railroad Maps #156". -- U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories Website, 2004
  3. 1887 Map (section of original), Columbia River and the Sauvie Island vicinity. (Click to enlarge). Bachelor Island, while not named on the map, is the island south (below) the Lewis River. Original Map: The Columbia River from Celilo to the mouth showing locations of the salmon fisheries, 1887. Scale ca. 1:375,000, Relief shown by hachures. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Office, G.P.O. 1888. University of Washington Archives #UW128. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  4. 1988 Map, Downstream end of Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, Multnomah Channel, Lewis River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Office of Coast Surveys, Historical Maps and Charts, Columbia River, Saint Helens to Vancouver, 1988, Chart#18524, 1:40,000. -- NOAA Office of Coast Survey Website, 2004
  5. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River from Deer Island to the Willamette River (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - north-northeast-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River from Deer Island to the Willamette River, including the Lewis River, Sauvie Island, Bachelor Island, and the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, October 1994. The Columbia River is flowing from lower right to upper left in this image (southeast to northwest). Washington State is the upper right of the image and Oregon is to the bottom left. NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-025. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  6. 1994, NASA Image, Columbia River and Sauvie Island (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - north-northeast-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River and Sauvie Island, Oregon, October 1994. NASA Earth from Space #STS068-262-025. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  7. 1992, NASA Image, Columbia River, Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - west-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River with Government Island, the Sandy River, Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington, September 1992. The Columbia River is flowing from bottom (east) to top (west). NASA Earth from Space #STS047-096-066. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  8. 1992, NASA Image, Columbia River upstream of Vancouver, Washington, showing Bachelor Island and the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge (section of original). (Click to enlarge). View from space - west-looking, low-oblique photograph, showing a section of the Columbia River upstream of Vancouver, Washington, September 1992. Bachelor Island is on the right side of the image, just barely discernible as an island (light colored yellowish area). Bachelor Island Slough separates Bachelor Island from the mainland. The area next to the Columbia on the right and the left side of Bachelor Island is part of the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge. The upper half of the image is Sauvie Island, with the Willamette River on it's left, the Columbia River on the bottom, and the Multnomah Channel on the upper side. NASA Earth from Space #STS047-096-066. -- NASA Earth from Space Website, 2002
  9. 2003, Multnomah Channel and Sauvie Island Bridge, taken from Oregon Highway 30. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.
  10. 2003, Sauvie Island pumpkin patch. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


Three miles further up, he reached a large wooden house, on the east side, where he intended to sleep, but on entering the rooms he found such swarms of fleas that he preferred lying on the ground in the neighbourhood [Night of April 2, 1806, Clark camped on the east side of the Willamette River near Portland's modern Municipal Terminal Four]


Along the Journey - April 2, 1806
Captain Clark's Camp - April 2, 1806
Captain Clark camped on the east side of the Willamette River near Portland's modern Municipal Terminal Four.


The guide informed him that this house is the temporary residence of the Nemalquinner tribe of the Cushook nation, who reside just below the falls of the Multnomah [Willamette Falls, Oregon City], but come down here occasionally to collect wappatoo: it was thirty feet long, and forty deep; built of broad boards, covered with the bark of white cedar; the floor on a level with the surface of the earth, and the arrangement of the interior like those near the seacoast. ...... The guide informed him further, that a small distance above were two bayous, on which were a number of small houses belonging to the Cushooks, but that the inhabitants had all gone up to the falls of the Multnomah [Willamette Falls, Oregon City], for the purpose of fishing.


Along the Journey - April 2, 1806
Willamette Falls, 1867

Willamette Falls and Oregon City:
The Willamette Falls area, now known as Oregon City, was the center of commerce and culture to native American tribes long before pioneers crossed the continent in their covered wagons. The falls were one of the biggest salmon fishing holes in the American West. Willamette Falls Locks opened its gates on January 1, 1873, allowing river traffic along the Willamette River safe portage around the 40-foot high Willamette Falls. The locks were the first water resource project in Oregon, and has been designated a National Historic Site and an Historic Engineering Site. The original lockmaster's office has been converted into a museum, and displays photographs of the historic locks that have been in operation since 1873. -- Library of Congress Website, 2002, "End of the Oregon Trail", and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Website, 2002.


Map, 1853, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, click to enlarge Engraving, 1841, Willamette Falls by J. Drayton, click to enlarge Stereo Image, 1867, Willamette Falls, click to enlarge Image, 1968, Willamette Falls, click to enlarge
  1. 1853 Map, Washington and Oregon and the Columbia River, from the Clearwater River to the Snake River and down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean (section of original). (Click to enlarge). Includes: Clearwater River (Kooskooski), Lapwai Creek (Lapwai R.), Snake River (Saptin or Lewis R.), Columbia River (Columbia R.), Yakima River (Yakima R.), Walla Walla River (Wallawalla R.), Umatilla River (Umatilla R.), Willow Creek (Quesnells R.), John Day River (John day's R.), Deschutes River (Fall R.), Willamette River (Willammette R.), and Cowlitz River (Cowlitz R.). Original Map: "Map of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, and New Mexico (1853)", by Thomas Cowperthwait & Co. Washington State University Archives #WSU22. -- Washington State University Library Collections Website, 2003
  2. 1841, Engraving, Chinookan men (possibly Clackamas) fishing at Willamette Falls, Oregon. (Click to enlarge). Engraving by J. Drayton, 1841. University of Washington Library Collection #NA3995. -- University of Washington Library Archives Website, 2002
  3. 1867, Stereo view, Willamette Falls. (Click to enlarge). Caption on image: The WIllamette Falls, Oregon. Photographer: Carleton E. Watkins. Photo Date: ca.1867. University of Washington Sterocard Collection #STE164, Stereocard Collection No. 58. -- University of Washington Libraries Collection Website, 2003
  4. 1968, Two people fishing from a boat at the falls on the Willamette River at Oregon City in Clackamas County. The falls are in the background. (Click to enlarge). Oregon State Archives Photograph #OHD7395. Photograph Date: ca. 1968, Photographer unknown. From: Oregon Department of Transportation. -- Oregon State Archives Website, 2002


Early the next morning [April 3, 1806] captain Clarke proceeded up the river, which, during the night, had fallen about five inches. At the distance of two miles he came to the centre of a bend under the highlands on the right side [today's Cathedral Park, St. John's Bridge, Portland, Oregon], from which its course, as could be discerned, was to the east of southeast.
"... The water had fallen in the course of last night five inches. I set out and proceeded up a short distance and attempted a second time to fathom the river with my cord of 5 fathom but could find no bottom. the mist was so thick that I could see but a short distance up this river. When I left it, it was bending to the East of S.E. being perfectly satisfyed of the size and magnitude of this great river which must water that vast tract of Country between the western range of mountains and those on the sea coast and as far S. as the Waters of California about Latd. 37. North. I deturmined to return. at 7 oClock A. M. set out on my return ... the enterance of Multnomah river is 142 miles up the Columbia river from its enterance into the Pacific Ocean ..." [Clark, April 3, 1806]


Along the Journey - April 3, 1806
St. Johns Bridge and Cathedral Park, 2003

St. Johns Bridge and Cathedral Park:
The site which now bears the name Cathedral Park is steeped in history. It is believed to be one of the 14 Lewis and Clark landing sites in the Vancouver-Portland area: William Clark and eight men camped there on April 2, 1806. This spot had been a fishing and camping site for many area Indian tribes. In 1847, the founder of St. Johns, James Johns, settled on the site and operated a ferry to Linnton across the Willamette River. In 1931, the St. Johns Bridge was built on the site with 400-foot towers and a main span of 1,207 feet. It is the only steel suspension bridge in Portland and is designated as an official historical landmark. In the early 1970s, Howard Galbraith, the "honorary mayor" of unincorporated St. Johns, got tired of the junkyard state of the area under the eastern end of the bridge. He organized a drive that eventually raised $7.5 million to build a park. After eight years of community fund raising, combined with state, county and city funding, the park was dedicated at a community celebration on May 3, 1980. It got its name from a photo of the St. Johns Bridge by Al Monner that appeared on the front page of the Oregon Journal in 1968. Reference was made to its beautiful cathedral-like arches and the park found its name. -- City of Portland Parks and Recreation Website, 2002


Image, St. Johns Bridge, click to enlarge Image, 2003, Willamette River, St. John's Bridge, and Cathedral Park, Oregon
  1. St. Johns Bridge, Portland, Oregon. (Click to enlarge). At the base of St. Johns Bridge (across the river and slightly obscured by foreground trees) is Cathedral Park. -- Oregon Department of Transportation Website, 2002
  2. 2003, Willamette River, St. John's Bridge, and Cathedral Park, Oregon. (Click to enlarge). Copyright © 2003 Lyn Topinka, private archives, used with permission.


At this place the Multnomah [Willamette River] is five hundred yards wide, and for half that distance across, the cord of five fathoms would not reach the bottom. It appears to be washing away its banks, and has more sandbars and willow points than the Columbia. Its regular gentle current, the depth and smoothness, and uniformity with which it rolls its vast body of water, prove that its supplies are at once distant and regular; nor, judging from its appearance and courses, is it rash to believe that the Multnomah [Willamette River] and its tributary streams water the vast extent of country between the western mountains [Cascade Mountain Range] and those of the seacoast [Coast Range], as far perhaps as the waters of the gulf of California. ......

At three o'clock he [Captain Clark] halted for an hour at the Nechecolee house, where his guide resided [location near today's Portland International Airport] ...... He then entered into a long conversation with regard to all the adjacent country and its inhabitants, which the old man [the father of the guide] explained with great intelligence, and then drew with his finger in the dust a sketch of the Multnomah, [Willamette River], and Wappatoo island [Sauvie Island]. This captain Clarke copied and preserved.

"... I provailed on an old man to draw me a sketch of the Multnomar River and give me the names of the nations resideing on it which he readily done, and gave me the names of 4 nations who reside on this river two of them very noumerous. The enterance of Multnomah river is 142 miles up the Columbia river from its enterance into the Pacific Ocean ..." [Clark, April 3, 1806]
He now purchased five dogs, and taking leave of the Nechecolee village, returned to camp [Cottonwood Beach, near Washougal, Washington] .


Along the Journey - April 3, 1806
The Main Camp - March 31 through April 5, 1806:
Cottonwood Beach, Washougal, Washington.



 
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