The 1995-1996 eruption of Mt. Ruaphehu in New Zealand (temperate region, 39o S latitude) clearly showed that a thin ashfall in early spring can have a significant impact on sheep, beef, and dairy farms. On dairy farms, milk yields were severely depressed in early lactation (yields were actually depressed during the entire lactation). On sheep and beef farms, lamb and calf survival and thrift were poor as ewes and beef cows reduced or stopped lactating. Wool quality is likely to be severely affected where sheep are close to shearing; the entire wool clip could be rejected.