Animals (livestock)

Other factors contributing to livestock vulnerability to ashfall following an eruption are:
  • Ash components (minerals, volcanic glass).
  • Consistency of the ash (particle sizes, angular vs. rounded).
  • Amount of rainfall immediately following an ashfall. For example, toxicity may be reduced by leaching of fluorine during rainfall and thin coatings of ash on plants may be washed away into the soil.
  • Age (young stock are more at risk than mature animals) and health of livestock.
  • Pasture length (close-grazing animals such as sheep and deer are more likely to be affected by light ashfall) and stocking rate.
  • Long-term soil fertility of pasture.