• Rehabilitation extremely difficult and likely to take generations.
  • Soil sterilized below ash.
  • Ash too deep to be incorporated using conventional cultivation techniques, including ploughing, discing or rotatilling.
  • Restoration dependent on removal of the ash layer or a much longer time frame of re-colonization of the ash layer.
  • Re-colonizing agents need to be adapted to harsh environments and will vary with climate.
  • Possible re-colonizing agents are Lupins and Lotus species (that fix nitrogen) along with Marram grass.
  • Initially, restoring basic facilities such as roads, water supply, power, and effluent systems is required before restoration can occur.
  • Immediate requirement, relocation of the affected residents and provision of adjustment programs.