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USGS Volcano Notice - DOI-USGS-HVO-2024-07-09T18:19:31+00:00


U.S. Geological Survey
Tuesday, July 9, 2024, 8:37 AM HST (Tuesday, July 9, 2024, 18:37 UTC)

KILAUEA (VNUM #332010)
19°25'16" N 155°17'13" W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

Activity Summary:  Kīlauea volcano is not erupting. Earthquake counts beneath Kaluapele and the upper East Rift Zone approximately doubled over the past 24 hours. Longer-term, gradual inflation of the summit and upper rift zones persists since the end of the June 3, 2024, eruption. Any substantial increases in seismicity and/or deformation could result in a new eruptive episode, but there are no signs of an imminent eruption at this time.

Summit and Upper Rift Zone Observations:  Over the past 24 hours, there were approximately 50 earthquakes detected beneath Kaluapele (Kīlauea caldera) and 100 earthquakes detected beneath the upper East Rift Zone, mostly at depths of 1–3 km (0.6–1.8 mi) beneath the ground surface. These counts are approximately doubled compared to the previous day (during which there were 20 events detected beneath the summit and 50 events detected beneath the upper East Rift Zone), but they remain well below the counts recorded during the June 27–July 1 upper East Rift Zone swarm. Most events were smaller than M2; however, there were several events between M2 and M3, and one M3 event beneath the upper East Rift Zone. Tiltmeters in Kīlauea summit region show a slight increase in inflationary ground deformation rates over the past day: the SDH instrument southwest of the summit recorded approximately 4 microradians of inflationary tilt and the UWE instrument northwest of the summit qualitatively shows minor inflationary tilt (about a microradian, see the monitoring notice below). GPS instruments around the summit region continue to show longer-term, gradual inflation since the end of the June 3, 2024, eruption. The most recent measurement of the summit's SO2 emission rate was approximately 75 tonnes per day on June 28, 2024.

A new map interferogram showing recent deformation at Kīlauea over the timeframe of June 6 to July 8, 2024, is available here: https://www.usgs.gov/maps/july-8-2024-insar-image-kilauea-ground-deformation 

Middle and Lower Rift Zone Observations:  Rates of seismicity and ground deformation beneath the middle and lower East Rift Zone and lower Southwest Rift Zone remain low. Recent eruptive activity and ongoing unrest have been restricted to the summit and upper rift zone regions. Measurements from continuous gas monitoring stations downwind of Puʻuʻōʻō in the middle East Rift Zone—the site of 1983–2018 eruptive activity—remain below detection limits for SO2, indicating that SO2 emissions from Puʻuʻōʻō are negligible.

Analysis:  Following the eruption on June 3, 2024, magma has been repressurizing the storage system beneath Halemaʻumaʻu and the south caldera region, activating earthquakes in the caldera south of Halemaʻumaʻu and in the upper East Rift Zone. At this time, it is not possible to say whether this activity will lead to an intrusion or eruption in the near future, or simply continue as seismic unrest at depth. Changes in the character and location of unrest can occur quickly, as can the potential for eruption, but there are no signs of an imminent eruption at this time.

Updates:  The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) will continue to provide daily updates for Kīlauea volcano. Should volcanic activity change significantly, a Volcanic Activity Notice will be issued.

Recent Eruption Information:  Kīlauea erupted briefly on June 3, 2024, southwest of the summit region within a closed area of Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park. For more information about this eruption, see this webpage: https://www.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/science/june-2024-kilauea-southwest-rift-zone-eruption.

Monitoring Notices:  The V1cam, located on the northwest rim of Kaluapele, is experiencing intermittent outages affecting the video livestream service. HVO technicians plan to visit the instrument today, July 9, to diagnose the issue. On July 2, HVO field engineers re-leveled the UWE tiltmeter located near Uēkahuna bluff in Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park. The instrument will need time to settle from physical disturbance during the manual re-leveling, a process that may last several weeks. While it settles, UWE tilt data will remain qualitatively useful, providing indications of short-term volcanic processes, such as magma ascent at the onset of an eruption or intrusion. 

Hazards:  Hazards remain around Kīlauea caldera from Halemaʻumaʻu crater wall instability, ground cracking, and rockfalls that can be enhanced by earthquakes within the area closed to the public. This underscores the extremely hazardous nature of the rim surrounding Halemaʻumaʻu crater, an area that has been closed to the public since early 2008.

Near the recent Southwest Rift Zone eruption site, minor to severe ground fractures and subsidence features may continue to widen and offset, may have unstable overhanging edges, and should be avoided. Hazards associated with the recent lava flows include glassy (sharp) surfaces that can cause serious abrasions, and lacerations upon contact with unprotected or exposed skin; uneven and rough terrain that can lead to falls and other injuries; or, locally elevated levels of volcanic gases that can lead to breathing difficulty.

For discussion of Kīlauea hazards, please see: https://www.usgs.gov/observatories/hawaiian-volcano-observatory/hazards.

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) continues to closely monitor Kīlauea Volcano.

Please see the Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park website for visitor information: https://www.nps.gov/havo/index.htm.

More Information:

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawaiʻi and American Samoa.



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Summary of volcanic hazards from eruptions: https://www.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo/hazards
Recent earthquakes in Hawaiʻi (map and list): https://www.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo
Explanation of Volcano Alert Levels and Aviation Color Codes: https://www.usgs.gov/programs/VHP/volcanic-alert-levels-characterize-conditions-us-volcanoes