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USGS Volcano Notice - DOI-USGS-HVO-2024-06-14T18:51:14+00:00


U.S. Geological Survey
Friday, June 14, 2024, 8:54 AM HST (Friday, June 14, 2024, 18:54 UTC)

KILAUEA (VNUM #332010)
19°25'16" N 155°17'13" W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

Activity Summary: Kīlauea volcano is not erupting. The eruption that began on Monday, June 3, southwest of Kaluapele (Kīlauea caldera) within Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park has ended. Incandescence from the fissure vents is no longer visible in nighttime webcam images. Volcanic gas emissions at the eruption site have decreased significantly and are approaching background levels. Earthquake counts in the summit region remain slightly elevated, while tremor has dropped to background levels. Inflationary ground deformation of the summit continues. Although the eruption has ended, renewed pulses of seismicity and deformation could result in new eruptive episodes within the area or elsewhere within the summit region.

Eruption Site Observations:  No lava is erupting. Glow from fissure vents is no longer visible in webcam imagery. Volcanic gas emissions at the eruption site are approaching background levels (100 tonnes per day or less). Total SO2 emission rates for the summit and recent eruption site of approximately 350 t/d were measured on June 10. Seismic activity remains low at the eruption site.

Summit and Upper Rift Zone Observations: Rates of seismicity beneath the summit, upper East Rift Zone, and upper Southwest Rift Zone were slightly elevated over the past day. About 35 earthquakes occurred over the past 24 hours. Earthquakes were mostly located beneath the south caldera region and upper East Rift Zone, at depths of 1.5-3 km (1–1.8 miles), with magnitudes under M2.5. Tremor has decreased to background levels across the summit region. Inflationary ground deformation of the summit continued over the past day. The Uēkahuna tiltmeter northwest of the summit recorded overall inflation of approximately 3 microradians over the past 24 hours. The Sand Hill tiltmeter southwest of the summit recorded approximately 5 microradians of inflation over the past 24 hours. 

Lower Rift Zone Observations: Rates of seismicity and ground deformation beneath the middle and lower East Rift Zone and lower Southwest Rift Zone are low. Eruptive activity and unrest have been restricted to the summit and upper rift zone regions. Measurements from continuous gas monitoring stations downwind of Puʻuʻōʻō in the middle East Rift Zone remain below detection limits for SO2, indicating that SO2 emissions from Puʻuʻōʻō are negligible. 

Eruption Summary: Emplacement of a magmatic dike began just after 12:00 p.m. HST on June 2, 2024, beneath the area of Kaluapele south of Halemaʻumaʻu. Seismicity continued to intensify beneath this area and HVO raised the alert levels from Advisory/Yellow to Watch/Orange as the dike shallowed.  Around 8:00 p.m. on June 2 a strong deflation signal on the Sand Hill tiltmeter indicated that a significant mass of magma moved to another location despite a lack of seismicity. After the deflationary event, seismicity declined significantly, and it was no longer possible to track the underground location of the magma. Data from USGS webcams and Keck Observatory webcams determined that the eruption began at 12:30 a.m. June 3, and effusion at the vents remained active until approximately 9:00 a.m., though lava flows were moving sluggishly until about noon on June 3. Numerous large ground cracks formed in the vicinity of the eruption extending westward to within 540 yards (500 meters) of Maunaiki. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates of 12,000-15,000 t/d were measured on June 3, and 5,500 t/d on June 4. 

Two new webcams monitor the recent eruption site: https://www.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/s1cam-view-upper-southwest-rift-zone-kilauea-view-southwest and https://www.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo/s2cam-view-upper-southwest-rift-zone-kilauea-view-south 

Mapped eruptive fissures and lava flow extent on a GIS satellite image background. USGS Hawaii eruption map - preliminary (arcgis.com) 

A map showing the location of this eruption and past eruptions in this area is available here: June 6, 2024 — Kīlauea Southwest Rift Zone eruption | U.S. Geological Survey (usgs.gov)

Analysis: The last eruption in this area occurred in December 1974. The 1974 eruption lasted 6 hours and erupted 13 million cubic yards (10 million cubic meters) of lava that covered about 3 square miles (7 square kilometers). In contrast, the June 3, 2024, eruption lasted 8.5 hours but only erupted about 1% of the volume and covered about 100 acres (400,000 square meters), or less than a quarter of a square mile. The pasty surface textures of the erupted lava and the small amount of lava erupted suggests that this lava could have been first emplaced during the January 31, 2024, intrusive event and cooled prior to being forced to the surface by the new dike. Although the eruption has ended, renewed pulses of seismicity and deformation could result in new eruptive episodes within the area or elsewhere in the summit region.

Updates: The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) will continue to provide daily updates for Kīlauea volcano. Should volcanic activity change significantly, a Volcanic Activity Notice will be issued. 

Hazards: Hazards present on Kīlauea are described below. Residents and visitors should stay informed and follow County of Hawai‘i and Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park guidelines.

Kīlauea eruptive activity on June 3 occurred within the closed area of Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park. High level of volcanic gas—primarily water vapor (H2O), and sulfur dioxide (SO2)—being emitted was the primary hazard of concern, as this hazard can have far-reaching effects downwind. As SO2 is released from, it reacts in the atmosphere to create the visible haze known as vog (volcanic smog) that has been observed downwind of eruptive vents. Vog creates the potential for airborne health hazards to residents and visitors, damages agricultural crops and other plants, and affects livestock. For more information on gas hazards at the summit of Kīlauea, please see: https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/fs20173017. Vog information can be found at https://vog.ivhhn.org.  

Other significant hazards occur around  recent eruptions. Minor to severe ground fractures and subsidence features may continue to widen and offset, may have unstable overhanging edges, and should be avoided. 

Hazards associated with active or recent lava flows include hot and glassy (sharp) surfaces that can cause serious burns, abrasions, and lacerations upon contact with unprotected or exposed skin; uneven and rough terrain can lead to falls and other injuries; hot temperatures that can cause heat exhaustion or dehydration, or in heavy rain can produce steamy ground-fog that can be acidic, severely limiting visibility and sometimes causing difficulty breathing.  

Hazards also remain around Kīlauea caldera from Halemaʻumaʻu crater wall instability, ground cracking, and rockfalls that can be enhanced by earthquakes within the area closed to the public. This underscores the extremely hazardous nature of the rim surrounding Halemaʻumaʻu crater, an area that has been closed to the public since early 2008.   

For discussion of Kīlauea hazards, please see: https://www.usgs.gov/observatories/hawaiian-volcano-observatory/hazards

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) continues to closely monitor Kīlauea Volcano. 

Please see the Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park website for visitor information: https://www.nps.gov/havo/index.htm. 

More Information:

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawaiʻi and American Samoa.



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