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USGS Volcano Notice - DOI-USGS-HVO-2024-05-22T17:43:20+00:00


U.S. Geological Survey
Wednesday, May 22, 2024, 7:58 AM HST (Wednesday, May 22, 2024, 17:58 UTC)

KILAUEA (VNUM #332010)
19°25'16" N 155°17'13" W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

Activity Summary:     Kilauea volcano is not erupting. Unrest continues beneath the upper East Rift Zone but rates of seismicity and ground deformation have slowed. The summit and south caldera are currently near background levels. Based on activity observed over the past several weeks, rates could increase again at any time.

Summit Observations and Upper East Rift Zone Observations: Over the past day, earthquake counts along the UERZ have been at background levels. Earthquakes in the summit and south caldera have also been at background levels. Earthquake depths have averaged 1–3 km (0.6–1.9 miles) beneath the surface, and magnitudes have been below M2.0. Earthquake rates have slowed down, but that could change at any time.

Ground deformation continues beneath Halemaʻumaʻu and the south caldera region. The Uēkahuna tiltmeter northwest of the summit recorded minor inflation over the past day. The Sand Hill tiltmeter southwest of the summit also showed minor uplift.

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas emission rates remain low. An SO2 emission rate of approximately 61 tonnes per day was recorded on May 21.

Rift Zone Observations:  Elevated seismic activity in the Upper East Rift Zone has been scattered along this zone in recent weeks but the number of earthquakes decreased over the past day. Currently, seismicity in Kilauea's Southwest Rift Zone is relatively low outside the summit region. Measurements from continuous gas monitoring stations downwind of Puʻuʻōʻō in the middle East Rift Zone remain below detection limits for SO2, indicating that SO2 emissions from Puʻuʻōʻō are negligible.

Analysis:  Magma has been pressurizing the system beneath Halemaʻumaʻu and the south caldera region, activating seismicity in the upper East Rift Zone, and in the caldera south of Halemaʻumaʻu. At this time, it is not possible to say whether this increase in activity will lead to an intrusion or eruption in the near future, or simply continue as seismic unrest at depth. Changes in the character and location of unrest can occur quickly, as can the potential for eruption.

Information Statement Issued May 2, 2024: An information statement summarizing the events since April 27, including interpretation and possible outcomes, can be found here:  Kīlauea Information Statement: summit region heightened unrest continues; no eruptive activity. | U.S. Geological Survey (usgs.gov)

Updates: The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) will provide daily updates while Kīlauea volcano is in a heightened state of unrest.

HVO continues to closely monitor Kīlauea for signs of increasing activity. Should volcanic activity change significantly, a Volcanic Activity Notice will be issued.

Hazards are still present on Kīlauea and are described below. Residents and visitors should stay informed and follow County of Hawai‘i and Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park guidelines.

More Information:

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawaiʻi and American Samoa.



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Summary of volcanic hazards from eruptions: https://www.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo/hazards
Recent earthquakes in Hawaiʻi (map and list): https://www.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo
Explanation of Volcano Alert Levels and Aviation Color Codes: https://www.usgs.gov/programs/VHP/volcanic-alert-levels-characterize-conditions-us-volcanoes