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USGS Volcano Notice - DOI-USGS-HVO-2024-04-20T19:47:18+00:00


U.S. Geological Survey
Saturday, April 20, 2024, 11:28 AM HST (Saturday, April 20, 2024, 21:28 UTC)

KILAUEA (VNUM #332010)
19°25'16" N 155°17'13" W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

Activity Summary:  Kīlauea volcano is not erupting. Increased seismicity over the past three weeks, indicates heightened activity. Updates will be provided daily while at a heightened state of unrest.

Summit Observations:  Earthquake activity has been increasing over the past three weeks beneath the summit of Kīlauea.  Activity has alternated between typical shallow, 0.5-2.5 miles (1-4 km) deep earthquakes beneath the south caldera region and 3-6 miles (5-10 km) deep earthquakes directly beneath Kīlauea caldera.  Last night, between approximately 9:40 pm and 10:40 pm HST on April, 19, 2024, a moderate swarm of earthquakes occurred 5-6 miles (8-10 km) beneath the summit. This activity indicated movement of magma in the subsurface.  Seismicity has returned to a lower level this morning.

Kīlaueaʻs summit remains inflated, but recent ground deformation remains low with tiltmeters near Sand Hill and Uēkahuna showing no significant changes in the past day.  Sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas emission rates have remained low since October 2023. An SO2 emission rate of approximately 96 tonnes per day was recorded on April 8.

Rift Zone Observations: Seismicity in Kīlauea's upper East Rift Zone and Southwest Rift Zone remain low. No unusual activity has been noted along the middle and lower sections of Kīlauea's East Rift Zone. We continue to closely monitor both rift zones.

Measurements from continuous gas monitoring stations downwind of Puʻuʻōʻō in the middle East Rift Zone—the site of 1983–2018 eruptive activity—continue to be below detection limits for SO2, indicating that SO2 emissions Puʻuʻōʻō are negligible.

Analysis: Last night's earthquake swarm had a strong low frequency component indicating movement of magma within the summit system.  This activity appears to have been deeper than normal activity that has preceded recent summit eruptions and HVO will continue to monitor the summit region closely.    At this time, it is not possible to say with certainty if this renewed activity will lead to an eruption in the near future –or simply remain confined below ground. However, an eruption in Kīlauea’s summit region, within Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park and away from infrastructure, is one potential outcome.

UPDATES: The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) will return providing daily updates while at a heightened state of unrest.

HVO continues to closely monitor Kīlauea for signs of increasing activity. Should volcanic activity change significantly, a Volcanic Activity Notice will be issued.  


Hazards are still present on Kīlauea and are described below. Residents and visitors should stay informed and follow County of Hawai‘i and Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park guidelines.  

Hazard Analysis:  Levels of volcanic gases (sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide) can remain locally hazardous even when Kīlauea is not erupting. Local concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and/or hydrogen sulfide (H2S) may persist in downwind areas, and residents may notice odors of these gases occasionally. Significant hazards also remain around Halemaʻumaʻu from crater wall instability, ground cracking, and rockfalls that can be enhanced by earthquakes within the area closed to the public. For discussion of Kīlauea hazards, please see: https://www.usgs.gov/observatories/hawaiian-volcano-observatory/hazards.

More Information:

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawaiʻi and American Samoa.



Subscribe to these messages: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vns2/
Summary of volcanic hazards from eruptions: https://www.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo/hazards
Recent earthquakes in Hawaiʻi (map and list): https://www.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo
Explanation of Volcano Alert Levels and Aviation Color Codes: https://www.usgs.gov/programs/VHP/volcanic-alert-levels-characterize-conditions-us-volcanoes