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USGS Volcano Notice - DOI-USGS-HVO-2024-02-02T20:02:36+00:00


U.S. Geological Survey
Friday, February 2, 2024, 10:08 AM HST (Friday, February 2, 2024, 20:08 UTC)

KILAUEA (VNUM #332010)
19°25'16" N 155°17'13" W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

Activity Summary:  Kīlauea volcano is not erupting. Seismicity along the Koa‘e fault system southwest of the summit remains elevated, and deformation patterns in Kīlauea’s summit remains show signs of deflation. The intrusion of magma southwest of Kīlauea’s summit remains active, and an eruption could occur in the future with little warning.    

Summit Observations:  As of this morning, seismicity 5-7 miles (8-11 km) southwest of the caldera, in the vicinity of Pu‘ukoa‘e, continues at rates of 20-35 locatable earthquakes per hour. Earthquakes in summit caldera region continue at lower rates of less than 10 per hour. Depths have remained consistent, 1–4 km (less than a mile–2.5 mi) below the surface and magnitudes range a maximum of 2+ to less than 1. In total, 63 earthquakes have been recorded in the caldera region over the past 24 hours and 504 have been recorded along the Koa‘e fault system. 

Over the past day, tiltmeters near Sand Hill and Uēkahuna bluff have recorded an additional 40 microradians of change consistent with deflation as magma moves into the region southwest (in the direction of where earthquakes are occurring).  However, since about midnight, the rates of change have decreased.  

Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments have recorded up to 8 inches (20 cm) of motion at stations around the SWRZ, consistent with magma moving into a dike-like body in the region. A dike is a tabular body of magma in older existing rock.  

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas emission rates remain low. Field measurements indicated an SO2 emission rate of approximately 70 tonnes per day on January 17, which was similar to measurements in October, November, and early December.   

Patterns of earthquakes and ground deformation continue to indicate that magma is moving beneath the surface southwest of the summit along the Ko’ae fault zone. The Koa‘e fault system, which appears as low cliffs, or “scarps” on the surface, connects Kīlauea’s East and Southwest Rift Zones south of the caldera. At the time of this report, activity remains elevated; periods of increased earthquake activity and rates of ground deformation can be expected to continue in this region. Based on past historical activity, this event is much more likely to continue as an intrusion, but there is still a possibility of it ending in an eruption.   


Please see previously published official notices for more information about recent activity:   

Kīlauea volcano alert level and aviation color code remain at WATCH/ORANGE as the situation remains dynamic. HVO will continue to evaluate alert levels and notices will be issued as activity warrants.  

Please note that upgrades to the network are causing intermittent outages that are affecting public access to monitoring data. HVO maintains internal access to volcano monitoring data and will continue to report on volcanic activity.  We apologize for any inconvenience during this dynamic time.  

Rift Zone Observations:  Seismicity in Kīlauea's East Rift Zone and Southwest Rift Zone remained low in the past 24 hours.  

We continue to closely monitor the summit and both rift zones. No unusual activity has been noted along the middle and lower sections of Kīlauea's East Rift Zone. Measurements from continuous gas monitoring stations downwind of Puʻuʻōʻō in the middle East Rift Zone—the site of 1983–2018 eruptive activity—have been below detection limits for SO2, indicating that SO2 emissions from Puʻuʻōʻō are negligible.  

Hazard Analysis:  Levels of volcanic gases (sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide) can remain locally hazardous even when Kīlauea is not erupting. Local concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and/or hydrogen sulfide (H2S) may persist in downwind areas, and residents may notice odors of these gases occasionally. Significant hazards also remain around Halemaʻumaʻu from crater wall instability, ground cracking, and rockfalls that can be enhanced by earthquakes within the area closed to the public. For discussion of Kīlauea hazards, please see: https://www.usgs.gov/observatories/hawaiian-volcano-observatory/hazards.  

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) continues to closely monitor Kīlauea volcano.  

Next Notice: HVO will issue daily Kīlauea updates. Additional messages will be issued as needed. 


More Information:

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawaiʻi and American Samoa.



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