eruptions are large explosive events that form enormous dark columns of tephra
and gas high into the stratosphere (>11 km). Such eruptions are named for Pliny the Younger, who carefully described the disastrous eruption of Vesuvius in 79 A.D. This eruption generated a huge column of tephra into the sky, pyroclastic flows
, and extensive ash
fall. Many thousands of people evacuated areas around the volcano, but about 2,000 were killed, including Pliny the Older.