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Volcano Hazard Assessments are based on the geologic record.

A long-term volcano hazard assessment report is a publication that summarizes the types and likelihood of future hazardous phenomena expected to occur at a specific volcano or volcanic region. The report typically includes a summary of the specific hazards, their impact areas, and a map showing ground-hazard zones. The assessments are also critical for planning long-term land-use, and effective emergency-response measures, especially when a volcano begins to show signs of unrest.