Hazard Notification System (HANS) for Volcanoes

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HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
U.S. Geological Survey
Thursday, January 6, 2022, 9:48 AM HST (Thursday, January 6, 2022, 19:48 UTC)


HUALALAI VOLCANO (VNUM #332040)
19°41'31" N 155°52'12" W, Summit Elevation 8278 ft (2523 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

No significant activity was recorded at Hualālai Volcano during the past month. There were 5 small-magnitude earthquakes detected in the vicinity of the volcano. This earthquake activity is on par with previous months.

Background: Hualālai is the third most active volcano on the Island of Hawaiʻi and typically erupts two to three times per 1,000 years. Hualālai last erupted in 1801 and, more recently, had a damaging seismic swarm in 1929 that was probably the result of a shallow intrusion of magma. Hualālai Volcano is monitored by one continuous GPS instrument and a seismometer located southeast of the summit, as well as several instruments on nearby flanks of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea. Key sites on Hualālai and western Mauna Loa are resurveyed using GPS receivers every few years to detect any changes in the volcano's shape.

More Information:
Hualālai volcano summary also available by phone: (808) 967-8877
Hualālai website: https://www.usgs.gov/volcanoes/hualalai

HALEAKALA VOLCANO (VNUM #332060)
20°42'29" N 156°15' W, Summit Elevation 10023 ft (3055 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

No significant activity was recorded at Haleakalā Volcano during the past month. The continuously recording Global Positioning System (GPS) instrument atop Haleakalā (MAUI) recorded no significant deformation.

Background: The most recent eruption on Haleakalā was probably between A.D. 1480 and 1600. Haleakalā Volcano is monitored by a continuous GPS instrument and a seismometer located near the southwest edge of the summit crater. Key sites on Haleakalā are resurveyed using GPS receivers every few years to detect any changes in the volcano's shape.

More Information:
Haleakalā volcano summary also available by phone: (808) 967-8877
Haleakalā website: https://www.usgs.gov/volcanoes/haleakala

MAUNA KEA VOLCANO (VNUM #332030)
19°49'12" N 155°28'12" W, Summit Elevation 13796 ft (4205 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

No significant activity was recorded at Mauna Kea Volcano during the past month. There were 64 small-magnitude earthquakes—all less than M3.0—detected in the vicinity of the volcano. This earthquake count is on par with previous months. The continuously recording Global Positioning System (GPS) instrument atop Mauna Kea (MKPM, operated by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory) recorded no significant deformation.

Background: Mauna Kea is a shield volcano in the post-shield stage; it last erupted about 4,600 years ago. Monitoring is conducted using three seismometers and one GPS instrument on the volcano, plus instruments on adjacent Kohala volcano and denser seismic and geodetic networks on the north flank of Mauna Loa to the south. With a summit at 4,207 meters (13,803 feet) above sea level, Mauna Kea is the tallest mountain in the state of Hawaii, and it is the tallest mountain on Earth when measured from its base on the ocean floor.

More Information:
Mauna Kea volcano summary also available by phone: (808) 967-8877
Mauna Kea website: https://www.usgs.gov/volcanoes/mauna-kea

KAMA'EHUAKANALOA VOLCANO (VNUM #332000)
18°55'12" N 155°16'12" W, Summit Elevation -3199 ft (-975 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: UNASSIGNED
Current Aviation Color Code: UNASSIGNED

There were about 97 earthquakes detected in the vicinity of Kama'ehuakanaloa (formerly Lō‘ihi Seamount) during the past month. Most of these events were small-magnitude earthquakes (less than M2.5) which occurred at shallow depths of less than 10 km (6 miles) below sea level. 26 of these events were part of a small earthquake swarm that occurred on December 15. The largest earthquake around the volcano during the past month was a M4.9 that occurred on December 24, at 1:31 a.m. It is not clear if this earthquake was related to the swarm.

Background: Intermittent earthquake activity has been recorded in the vicinity of Kama'ehuakanaloa (formerly Lō‘ihi) since as early as 1952. The most energetic earthquake sequence occurred in July-August 1996, which included more than 4,000 earthquakes, with nearly 300 events larger than M3.0 and 95 events in the M4.0 to 4.9 range. More recently, a swarm of 100 earthquakes occurred on May 11, 2020, with 18 events in the M3.0 to 3.9 range. There are no working monitoring instruments on Kama'ehuakanaloa, whose peak is about 1,000 meters (3,280 feet) below sea level. All real-time information about the volcano is derived from land-based seismometers on the Island of Hawai‘i.

More Information:
Kama'ehuakanaloa website: https://www.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kama'ehuakanaloa


Volcanoes at Elevated Alert Levels:
Kīlauea Volcano (ORANGE/WATCH) updates: https://www.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/volcano-updates
Mauna Loa Volcano (YELLOW/ADVISORY) updates: https://www.usgs.gov/volcanoes/mauna-loa/volcano-updates

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Subscribe to these messages: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vns2/

Summary of volcanic hazards from eruptions: https://www.usgs.gov/observatories/hawaiian-volcano-observatory/hazards

Recent earthquakes in Hawaiʻi (map and list): https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo/

Explanation of Volcano Alert Levels and Aviation Color Codes: https://www.usgs.gov/natural-hazards/volcano-hazards/about-alert-levels

CONTACT INFORMATION:

askHVO@usgs.gov

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawaiʻi.