Hall J. Kelley

Presidents Range
(Originally published in 1839, included in this 1917 publication of the Oregon Historical Society)


Excerpt from: "Hall Jackson Kelley -- Prophet of Oregon", written by Fred Wilbur Powell, A.M., and published in The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, March 1917, vol.XVIII, number 1. Annotations are by the author, Fred W. Powell.

Presidents Range

   [p.214]     ... The Presidents' Range.-- In his Memoir of 1839 Kelley said "The eastern portion of the district referred to [southwestern Oregon] is bordered by a mountain range [the Cascades] running nearly parallel to the spine of the Rocky mountains and to the coast, and which, from the number of its elevated peaks, I am inclined to call the Presidents' range. These isolated and remarkable cones, which are now called among the hunters of the Hudson's Bay Company by other names, I have christened after our ex-Presidents, viz.: 1. Washington [St. Helens], latitude 46 deg. 15 min.; 2. Adams [Hood], latitude 45 deg. 10 min.; 3. Jefferson, latitude 44 deg. 30 min.; 4. Madison [Three Sisters], latitude 43 deg. 50 min.; 5. Monroe [Diamond or Thielsen], latitude 43 deg. 20 min.; 6. J.Q. Adams [Pitt or McLoughlin], latitude 42 deg. 10 min.; 7. Jackson [Shasta], latitude 41 deg. 40 min." ...


Excerpt source found at "Google Books" website, 2008.



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Thomas J. Farnham

Presidents Range
(Published in 1843)

Excerpt from: Travels in the Great Western Prairies, The Anahuac and Rocky Mountains, and in the Oregon Territory, Vol.II, by Thomas J. Farnham, 1843, published by Richard Bentley, New Burlington Street, London.

Presidents Range

   [p.225-227]     ... The President's range is in every respect the most interesting in Oregon. It is a part of a chain of highlands, which commences at Mount St. Elias, and gently diverging from the coast, terminates in the arid hills about the head of the Gulf of California. It is a line of extinct volcanoes, where the fires, the evidences of whose intense power are seen over the whole surface of Oregon, found their principal vents. It has twelve lofty peaks; two of which, Mount St. Elias and Mount Fairweather, lie near latitude 55o north; and ten of them which lie south of latitude 49o. Five of these latter have received names from British navigators and traders.

The other five have received from American travellers, and Mr. Kelly, the names of deceased Presidents of the Republic. Mr. Kelly, I believe, was the first individual who suggested a name for the whole range. For convenience in description I have adopted it. ...

Mount Tyler is situated near latitude forty-nine degrees north, and about twenty miles from the eastern shore of those waters between Vancouver's Island, and the continent. It is clad with perpetual snow.
[Mount Baker]

Mount Harrison is situated a little more than a degree south of Mount Tyler, and about thirty miles east by north of Puget's Sound. It is covered with perpetual snow.
[Mount Rainier]

Mount Van Buren stands on the isthmus between Puget's Sound and the Pacific. It is a lofty, wintry peak, seen in clear weather eighty miles at sea.
[Mount Olympus]

Mount Adams lies under the parallel of forty-five degrees, about twenty-five miles north of the cascades of the Columbia. This is one of the finest peaks of the chain, clad with eternal snows, five thousand feet down its sides.
[Mount St. Helens]

Mount Washington lies a little north of the forty-fourth degree north and about twenty miles south of the Cascades. It is a perfect cone, and is said to rise seventeen thousand or eighteen thousand feet above the level of the sea. More than half its height is covered with perpetual snows.
[Mount Hood]

Mount Jefferson is an immense peak under latitude forty-one and a half degrees north. It received its name from Lewis and Clark.
[Mount Jefferson]

Mount Madison is the Mount McLaughlin of the British fur-traders.
[???]

Mount Monroe is in latitude forty-three degrees twenty minutes north, and
[???]

Mount John Quincy Adams is in forty-two degrees ten minutes; both covered with perpetual snow.
[Mount McLoughlin]

Mount Jackson is in latitude forty-one degrees ten minutes. It is the largest and highest pinnacle of the President's range.
[Mount Shasta]



Excerpt source found at "Google Books" website, 2008.



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Lansford W. Hastings

Presidents Range
(Published in 1845)

Excerpt from: The Emigrants' Guide, To Oregon and California ..., by Lansford W. Hastings, Leader of the Oregon and California Emigrants of 1842, published by George Conclin, Cincinnati, 1845. Annotation taken from Hall J. Kelley's map, "Territory of Oregon", courtesy College of the Siskiyous website, 2008]

Presidents Range

   [p.25-26]     ... The Cascade mountains constitute that range which lies nearest the coast, and which is called the Cascade, or President's range. The course of this range is nearly parallel with the coast; its average distance from which, is from one to two hundred miles; and it is surpassed in altitude only by the Rocky mountains. It has twelve lofty peaks, several of which are from twelve to eighteen thousand feet above the level of the sea, rising in perfect cones, and covered perpetually with snow. Five of these have received the names of the former deceased presidents of the United States. These names were given them, by a Mr. Kelley, a traveler from the United States, several years ago, and they have ever since retained them; hence it is that this range is now called the Presidents' range. The other seven of these extraordinary conical peaks, have received their names from various English travelers and navigators. But five of this seven, have latterly, received the names of five other presidents of the United States. These names, I will also adopt, as I much prefer our own names, for our own property. The remaining two of these singular elevations, are called mount Fareweather, and mount St. Elias, both of which, are situated north of the northern boundary of Oregon. Now having our own names for each of these, which are within our own territory, I will proceed to give a brief description of them, in their proper order.

Mount Washington is situated near latitude 44? north, about seven leagues south of the cascades; it is conical in form, rising about eighteen thousand feet above the level of the sea, and covered with perpetual snow, at least 12 thousand feet from its top downwards.
[Mount Hood]

Mount Adams is near the parallel of 45? north latitude, about eight leagues north from the cascades. About five hundred feet of its surface from its top, are covered with snow perpetually.
[Mount St. Helens]

Mount Jefferson is a vast and lofty peak, situated near latitude 42? north; it is also covered perpetually with snow, several thousand feet downward, from its top, and is seen from almost any part of the southern country.
[Mount Jefferson]

Mount Madison is near latitude 46? north; it is a vast massive peak, covered with snow to a very great depth.
[Kelley's map has "Mount Madison" located in the Three Sisters area]

Mount Monroe is also a vastly elevated peak, extending far into the snowy region; it lies near latitude 43? and 30' north, and is seen at a great distance.
[Kelley's map has "Mount Monroe" in the Mount Thielsen or Mount Scott area]

Mount John Q. Adams, situated at latitude 42?? and 10' north, is also a vast peak, towering high above the snow line.
[Mount McLoughlin]

Mount Jackson is among the most elevated peaks, and is surpassed only by mount Washington; it is situated near the forty second degree of north latitude.
[Mount Shasta]

Mount Van Buren is a very high peak, situated on the isthmus, between the Pacific and Puget's sound.
[Mount Olympus]

Mount Harrison is also a very lofty peak, terminating in regions of perpetual snow; it lies about forty miles west [east] from Puget's sound.
[Mount Rainier]

Mount Tyler, being vasatly elevated and covered with snow, is seen at a very great distance; it lies about eighty miles north from mount Harrison.
[Mount Baker]

All these are most extraordinary conical formations; some of which are seen from every part of the country. Here, wherever you are, you behold these ancient pyramids of eternal ice and snow, fearlessly rearing their majestic heads, high in the ethereal regions, amid the howling tempest, the flashing lightnings, and the roaring thunders above; presenting their eternal battlements, in bold defiance of the foaming billows, the raging floods, and the quaking and volcanic earth below. Enduring monuments of time! All this range of mountains, is much less sterile than those before described. It has numerous elevated plains and valleys, and extensive depressions, all of which, abound with vegetation of various kinds; lofty trees of fir, pine, cedar and oak, of ost extraordinary growth. ...



Excerpt source found at Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library Website (2007).



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J.Quinn Thornton

Presidents Range
(Published in 1849)

Excerpt from:

Presidents Range

   [p.255-261]     The Presidents' Range of mountains may be said to have its commencement with Mount St. Elias, which is about one hundred miles east of Prince William's Sound, in Russian America ... This chain of mountains, from that point south to Fraser's river, is known as the Cascade Range. From the latter point, extending south, it is known among the patriotic American citizens of Oregon, as The Presidents' Range. Its general direction is from north to south, and nearly parallel with the coast. It has numerous lofty peaks, which, like most of the mountains in Oregon, exhibit evidences of volcanic origin and rise to the region of perpetual snow.

To several of these elevations, the names of American Presidents have been given. I regard it as being peculiarly proper, to identify the name of the chief magistrate, during whose administration the dispute respecting the title to the country in which they are situated was settled, with the snowy peaks of this chain of mountains. I have, therefore, designated as "Mount Polk", that peak heretofore known as Mount Baker. It is near the forty-ninth parallel, and a little east of the Straits of Juan de Fuca. I know not its elevation, and if I have ever seen a statement of it, I have ceased to remember it.
[Mount Baker]

"Mount Washington" is that known among the British as Mount Hood. It lies a little south of the Columbia river, and in about latitude 45?, 20'. It is estimated to be from twelve to sixteen thousand feet high. The Indians affirm that they have frequently seen fires in the chasms of this mountain. Independent of this, there are many facts, which leave no doubt, that this is a volcano.
[Mount Hood]

"Mount John Adams" is the Mount St. Helens of the British ...
[Mount St. Helens]

"Mount Jefferson" is the Mount Vancouver of the British. This name of jefferson was bestowed upon it by Lewis and Clarke, in 1804. It is situated in about latitude 44?, 40'.
[Mount Jefferson]

"Mount Madison" is the Mount McLaughlin of the British. It is in about 43?, 30'.
[most likely referring to one of the Three Sisters]

"Mount Monroe" is near 43?, 30', and is the Mount Shaste of the British.
[latitude puts it at Thielsen or Scott, although the British "Mount Shaste" originally was Mount McLoughlin]

"Mount John Quincy Adams" is near latitude 42?, 10'.
[Mount McLoughlin].

"Mount Jackson" is situated in about latitude 41?, 40', and is the Mount Pitt of the British.
[Mount Shasta was at one time called "Mount Pitt", before the name "Pitt" became associated with Mount McLoughlin].

"Mount Van Buren" is the Mount Olympus of the maps, and is situated on the peninsula between Hood's canal and the ocean.
[Mount Olympus]

"Mount Harrison" is the Mount Rainier of the maps, and is situated near the 47th parallel of latitude. It is 12,330 feet high.
[Mount Rainier]

"Mount Tyler" is a name bestowed upon an elevation on the peninsula, between Hood's canal and the ocean, and is inferior in elevation to Mount Van Buren, or Mount Olympus of the British.
[???]



Excerpt source found at "Google Books", 2010.



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William Gladstone Steel

Presidents Range
(Published in 1890)

Excerpt from: The Mountains of Oregon, by William Gladstone Steel, published by David Steel, Portland, 1890, excerpts taken from two chapters, "What they Signify" and "Oregon Bibliography".

Presidents Range

Mount Baker: Called "Mt. Polk" by the Americans (1846).

Mount Hood: Same as "Mt. Washington" of the Americans (1846).

Mount Jefferson:" Discovered by Lewis and Clark and named for President Jefferson, 1806. Same as "Mt. Vancouver" of the British (1846).

Mount McLaughlin: Same as "Mt. Madison" of the Americans (1846).

Mount Olympus: Same as "Mt. Van Buren" (1846).

Mount Rainier: Called "Mt. Harrison" by the Americans (1846).

Mount St. Helens: Known among Americans as "Mt. Washington" (1846), as also "Mt. John Adams".

Mount Shasta: Called "Pitt" by the English, "Jackson" and "Monroe" by the Americans, and "Shasta" by the trappers.



Excerpt source found at Google Books, 2010.