Current Alerts for U.S. Volcanoes

  • 2014-04-19 11:29:36 Shishaldin Watch Orange
  • 2014-04-19 07:04:58 Kilauea Watch Orange
  • 2014-04-19 11:29:36 Cleveland Advisory Yellow
  • 2014-04-19 11:29:36 Veniaminof Advisory Yellow
  • 2014-04-18 09:35:26 Pagan Advisory Yellow
  • 2014-04-18 13:28:01 Cascade Range Normal Green
  • 2014-04-09 07:54:47 Mauna Loa Normal Green
  • 2014-04-09 07:54:47 Mauna Kea Normal Green
  • 2014-04-09 07:54:46 Hualalai Normal Green
  • 2014-04-09 07:54:46 Haleakala Normal Green
  • 2014-04-03 13:57:33 Yellowstone Normal Green
  • 2014-04-09 07:54:46 Lo`ihi Unassigned Unassigned

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ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY DAILY UPDATE
Tuesday, April 8, 2014 12:27 PM AKDT (Tuesday, April 8, 2014 20:27 UTC)


CLEVELAND VOLCANO (VNUM #311240)
52°49'20" N 169°56'42" W, Summit Elevation 5676 ft (1730 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

No unusual activity was observed in mostly cloudy satellite images over the past day.

SHISHALDIN VOLCANO (VNUM #311360)
54°45'19" N 163°58'16" W, Summit Elevation 9373 ft (2857 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

Elevated surface temperatures were observed at the summit crater in satellite images during the past 24 hours. The webcam was mostly obscured by weather, though clear views yesterday showed no steam plume. No change in activity has been detected in the seismic data.

VENIAMINOF VOLCANO (VNUM #312070)
56°11'52" N 159°23'35" W, Summit Elevation 8225 ft (2507 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

Seismicity over the past day remains only slightly above background. Weakly elevated surface temperatures consistent with cooling lava have been observed in mostly clear satellite images over the past 24 hours. Clear webcam views yesterday and today do not show a steam plume issuing from the intracaldera cone.

VOLCANO INFORMATION ON THE INTERNET: http://www.avo.alaska.edu
RECORDING ON THE STATUS OF ALASKA'S VOLCANOES (907) 786-7478

CONTACT INFORMATION:
John Power, Scientist-in-Charge, USGS
jpower@usgs.gov (907) 786-7497

Jeff Freymeuller, Coordinating Scientist, UAFGI
jeff.freymueller@gi.alaska.edu (907) 322-4085

The Alaska Volcano Observatory is a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys.



AVO Alert Archive Search
CASCADES VOLCANO OBSERVATORY WEEKLY UPDATE
Friday, April 18, 2014 1:28 PM PDT (Friday, April 18, 2014 20:28 UTC)


CASCADE RANGE VOLCANOES
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

Activity Update: All volcanoes in the Cascade Range of Oregon and Washington are at normal levels of background seismicity. These include Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Adams in Washington State; and Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, Three Sisters, Newberry, and Crater Lake in Oregon.

Recent Observations: A swarm of approximately 10 very small earthquakes occurred ~4km south of the summit of Mount Hood between April 15th and 16th. Swarms like this typically occur several times per year near Mount Hood and are consistent with usual background activity.






Mount St. Helens Seismic Information
CVO Alert Archive Search
HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY DAILY UPDATE
Saturday, April 19, 2014 7:04 AM HST (Saturday, April 19, 2014 17:04 UTC)


This report on the status of Kilauea volcanic activity, in addition to maps, photos, and Webcam images (available at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/activity/kilaueastatus.php), was prepared by the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). All times are Hawai`i Standard Time.

KILAUEA VOLCANO (VNUM #332010)
19°25'16" N 155°17'13" W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

Activity Summary: The eruption continued at the summit and within the east rift zone with no significant changes. The summit tiltmeter network recorded the start of weak DI deflationary tilt and the level of the circulating summit lava lake plummeted about 10 m. At the middle east rift zone, Pu`u `O`o vents continued feeding the Kahauale`a 2 lava flow whose active distal end was found to have retreated over the past 9 days. Gas emissions remained elevated.

Recent Observations at Kilauea summit: The summit tiltmeters recorded the start of another, probably weak, DI deflationary tilt. The lava lake dropped with tilt to an estimated 45-47 m (148-154 ft) below the floor of Halema`uma`u crater. Gas emissions continued to be elevated: during the week ending on 04/15/14, the summit SO2 emission rate varied between 1,950 and 3,800 tonnes/day (see caveat below); the ambient SO2 concentrations near the vent vary greatly, are persistently great than 10 ppm, and frequently exceed 50 ppm (upper limit of detector). The gas plume typically included a small amount of ash-sized tephra (mostly fresh spatter bits and Pele's hair from the circulating lava lake); the heaviest pieces are deposited onto nearby surfaces while the finer bits can be carried several kilometers before dropping out of the plume.

Seismic tremor levels were low with a few dropouts. Thirteen earthquakes were strong enough to be located beneath Kilauea Volcano in the past 24 hours: 4 south of the summit caldera, 2 within the upper east rift zone, and 7 on south flank faults. GPS receivers spanning the summit caldera recorded changes mimicking the recent tilt changes after recording about 3 cm of extension between early December, 2013, and mid-February, 2014; the long-term, cross-caldera measurements indicate continued extension at a rate averaging 10 cm/yr (4 in/yr) since March, 2010.

Background: The summit lava lake is within a nearly-cylindrical vent cavity with a diameter of ~160 m (520 ft) and nearly vertical sides inset within the east wall and floor of Halema`uma`u Crater. Its level has varied from about 25 m to more than 200 m (out of sight) below the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater. The vent has been mostly active since opening with a small explosive event on March 19, 2008. The surface level of the lava lake has remained mostly below the inner ledge (~31 m or 100 ft below the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater on October 29, 2012) and has risen above and flooded the ledge in October 2012 and January 2013 before receding to greater depths. The lake level responds to summit tilt changes with the lake generally receding during deflation and rising during inflation.

Recent Observations at the middle east rift zone vents: The Pu`u `O`o eruption continued with no significant changes. The tiltmeter at Pu`u `O`o cone recorded only minor fluctuations. The most recent sulfur-dioxide emission-rate measurement was 200 tonnes per day on April 15, 2014, from all east rift zone sources; emission rates typically ranged between 150 and 450 t/d since July 2012. GPS receivers on the north rim and south flank of Pu`u `O`o cone recorded fluctuations mimicking the tilt changes while also recording extension at a rate of about 1 cm/month. Spatter cones on the floor of Pu`u `O`o crater displayed strong glow and the lava level of the circulating lava pond was elevated within the collapsed northeast spatter cone.

Recent Observations of the Kahauale`a 2 flow: Yesterday, HVO geologists mapped the active tip of the flow at 7.5 km (4.7 mi) northeast from Pu`u `O`o with several patches of activity within the flow interior and fewer at the flow edge burning forest; this is a significant retreat of activity probably due to the temporary reduction of lava supply to the flow caused by the recently completed DI tilt event. Yesterday's active front was about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) behind the active front on April 9 when a satellite image showed the active tip of the Kahauale`a 2 flow at 8.3 km (5.2 mi) northeast from Pu`u `O`o

In general, this slow-moving lava flow has made erratic progress over the past few months. Disruption of the flow front has occurred during strong DI deflation events when the lava supply abruptly decreased causing the flow front to stagnate. DI inflation and resumption of lava supply usually follow a few days later. Breakouts reappear well behind the stalled flow front and take some time to reach the front again. In this way, the flow front has not advanced more than 1.2 km (0.75 mi) since the first time it stalled in early November, 2013.

Background: The eruption in Kilauea's middle east rift zone started with a fissure eruption on January 3, 1983, and continued with few interruptions at Pu`u `O`o Cone, or temporarily from vents within a few kilometers to the east or west. A fissure eruption on the upper east flank of Pu`u `O`o Cone on Sept. 21, 2011, drained the lava lakes and fed a lava flow (Peace Day flow) that advanced southeast through the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision to the ocean within Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park in early December 2011. The flows stalled and re-entered the ocean starting on November 24, 2012 until activity started to decline and the ocean entry ceased in August 20, 2013; the flow was dead by early November, 2013. The Kahauale`a flow, which started from the spatter cone/lava lake at the northeast edge of the Pu`u `O`o crater floor in mid-January, 2013, was dead by late April, but a new flow (informally called Kahauale`a 2) became active in the same general area in early May. In general, activity waxes with inflation and wanes with deflation.

Hazard Summary: East rift vents and flow field - the Kahauale`a 2 flow does not pose any immediate threat to residential areas; near-vent areas could erupt or collapse without warning with spatter and/or ash being wafted within the gas plume; potentially-lethal concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas may be present within 1 km downwind of vent areas. Active lava flows within forest can produce methane blasts that propel rocks and other debris into the air. All recently active lava flows are within Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and adjacent State land managed by the Department of Land and Natural Resources or the Office of Hawaiian Affairs. Kilauea Crater - ash and Pele's hair can be carried several kilometers downwind; potentially-lethal concentrations of sulfur dioxide can be present within 1 km downwind.

Viewing Summary: East rift zone flow field - Most of the flow field is within the closed-access Kahauale'a Natural Area Reserve (NAR) or the Wao Kele o Puna Forest Reserve (DLNR, OHA) and can only be viewed from the air. Under favorable weather conditions at night, distant glow from the active flows can be seen from the County Viewing Area at Kalapana (Lava hotline 961-8093) and from the end of the Chain of Craters Road within Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park. Pu`u `O`o Cone and Kilauea Crater - these areas are within Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park; Park access and viewing information can be found at http://www.nps.gov/havo/planyourvisit/lava2.htm.

Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rate estimation caveat: Starting in 2014, we report the emission rate estimated by a new, more accurate method. The numbers increase by a factor of 2-4 but the actual emission rate has not changed. For more on this reporting change, please read http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/view.php?id=207

Additional Information:

For a definition of volcano alert levels and aviation color codes: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/activity/alertsystem/index.php

Maps, photos, Webcam views, and other information about Kilauea Volcano are available at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo/activity/kilaueastatus.php. A daily update summary is available by phone at (808) 967-8862.

A map with details of earthquakes located within the past two weeks can be found at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/seismic/volcweb/earthquakes/

HVO Contact Information:

askHVO@usgs.gov

Definitions of Terms Used:

LPs - Long Period (LP) events refer to earthquakes that have a lower frequency or tone than typical earthquakes and are usually attributed to the resonance of fluid- and gas-filled conduits, cracks and/or chambers. Because of their association with fluids and gases, LP earthquakes in the vicinity of volcanoes can be useful for monitoring purposes. At other volcanoes LP earthquakes are also known as low-frequency earthquakes, tornillos or B-type earthquakes.

DI tilt event: DI is an abbreviation for 'deflation-inflation' and describes a geophysical event of uncertain volcanic significance. DI events are recorded by tiltmeters at Kilauea summit as an abrupt deflation of up to a few microradians in magnitude lasting several hours (weak DI events) to 2-3 days (strong DI events) followed by an abrupt inflation of approximately equal magnitude. The tilt events are usually accompanied by an increase in summit tremor during the deflation phase. A careful analysis of these events suggests that they may be related to changes in magma supply to a storage reservoir at less than 1 km depth, just east of Halema`uma`u crater. Usually, though not always, these changes propagate through the magma conduit from the summit to the east rift eruption site, as many of the DI events at Kilauea summit are also recorded at a tiltmeter at Pu`u `O`o delayed by several hours. DI events often correlate with lava pulses and/or pauses in the eruption at the Pu`u `O`o/Peace Day vents.

rise/fall events: one of the episodic behaviors exhibited by the summit lava lake starting in 2009. An event starts with a rise in lava level, a decrease in high-frequency summit tremor amplitude, a decrease or total stoppage of spattering, and a small decrease in tilt. After a period of minutes to hours, the lava will abruptly drain back to its previous level amidst resumed vigorous spattering, seismic tremor amplitude will increase for a short time (a seismic tremor burst) before resuming background levels, and summit tilt will return to its previous level. Gas emissions decrease significantly during the high lava stand (the plume gets wispy), and resume during its draining phase. Taken together, the geophysical characteristics suggest that, during the high lava stand, lava is puffed up with gas trapped under the lava lake crust.

seismic tremor dropout: these behaviors are identical to rise/fall events except that the lava lake level doesn't rise or fall significantly. High-frequency seismic tremor, gas emissions, and spattering decrease abruptly during a dropout. A dropout can end with a burst of seismic tremor and a significant pulse of gas emissions.

mauka, makai: Hawaiian terms for directions relative to the coast - makai or ma kai (toward the coast) and mauka or ma uka (toward the highlands or away from the coast).

pali: Hawaiian term for cliff or precipice.

composite seismic events: is a seismic signal with multiple distinct phases that has been recorded frequently at HVO from the Halema`uma`u Overlook vent area since its explosive opening in March, 2008. For the composite events recorded at Halema`uma`u, we typically see an initial high frequency vibration lasting for a few seconds that have been correlated with rockfalls. This is followed by about 30 seconds of a long-period (LP) oscillation with an approximately 2- to 3-second period. The final phase of the signal is several minutes of a very-long-period (VLP) oscillation with an approximately 25- to 30-second period. The LP signals are interpreted to be from the uppermost portion of the conduit and VLP signals are interpreted to be fluid passing through a deep constriction in the conduit through which lava rises to the pond surface we see in the webcam.

Halema`uma`u Overlook vent: has been difficult to describe concisely. The vent is actually a pit, or crater, in the floor of the larger Halema`uma`u Crater which is, in turn, in the floor of the larger Kilauea caldera or crater - a crater within a crater within a crater. It is easiest to describe as a pit inset within the floor of a crater within a caldera. The pit is about 160 m (525 ft) in diameter at the Halema`uma`u Crater floor, is about 50 m in diameter at a depth of 200 m (660 ft) below the Halema`uma`u Crater floor. From November, 2009, to now, a lava pond surface has been visible in this pit.

glow: light from an unseen source; indirect light.

incandescence: the production of visible light from a hot surface. The term also refers to the light emitted from a hot surface. The color of the light is related to surface temperature. Some surfaces can display dull red incandescence at temperatures as low as 430 degrees Centigrade (806 degrees Fahrenheit). By contrast, molten lava displays bright orange to orange-yellow light from surfaces that are hotter than 900 degrees C (1,650 degrees F).

CD: Hawai`i County Civil Defense

tonne: metric unit equal to 1,000 kilograms, 2,204.6 lbs, or 0.984 English tons.

tephra: all material deposited by fallout from an eruption-related plume, regardless of size.

ash: tephra less than 2 mm (5/64 inches) in size.

microradian: a measure of angle equivalent to 0.000057 degrees.

More definitions with photos can be found at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/images/pglossary/index.php.

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.



HVO Alert Archive Search
CALIFORNIA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
Friday, April 11, 2014 12:32 PM PDT (Friday, April 11, 2014 19:32 UTC)


Monitored CALIFORNIA VOLCANOES
Current Volcano Alert Level: all NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: all GREEN


Activity Update: All volcanoes monitored by CalVO using telemetered, real-time sensor networks exhibit normal levels of background seismicity and deformation. Volcanoes monitored include Mount Shasta, Medicine Lake Volcano, Clear Lake Volcanic Field, Lassen Volcanic Center, Long Valley Caldera and Mono-Inyo Chain, Coso Volcanic Field, Ubehebe Craters, and Salton Buttes.


Observations for March 1, 2014 (0000h PST) through March 31, 2014 (2359h PDST):
Mt Shasta:: Three earthquakes of M1.0 or greater were detected; the largest was a M2.0.
Medicine Lake: No earthquakes of M1.0 or greater were detected.
Lassen Volcanic Center: Six earthquakes of M1.0 or greater were detected (M 1.4 maximum).
Clear Lake Volcanic Field: Six M1.0 or greater earthquakes were detected. The largest earthquake was a M1.9. [Note: Typical high level of seismicity was observed under the Geysers steam field located at the western margin of CLVF. The largest event was a M2.8].
Long Valley Caldera and Mono-Inyo Chain: The earthquake swarm that occurred beneath Mammoth Mountain in February subsided, with only one M1.1 earthquake in March (although several M<1.0 earthquakes were detected, as usual). Elsewhere in the region, thirty-eight earthquakes of M1.0 or greater were located in the Long Valley Caldera (maximum M2.7). Two earthquakes of M1.0 or greater were detected under the Mono-Inyo chain (M1.6 maximum). [Note: The typical high level of seismicity was observed south of the caldera in the Sierra Nevada range. The largest event was M2.7]
Ubehebe Craters: No earthquakes at or above M1.0 were detected.
Salton Buttes: The typical high level of seismicity was observed in the vicinity of the buttes, with twenty-nine earthquakes above M1.0 and greater (M3.4 maximum).
Coso Volcanic Field: The typical high level of seismicity was observed, with thirty-eight earthquakes above M1.0 and greater (M3.1 maximum).

The U.S. Geological Survey will continue to monitor these volcanoes closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted. For a definition of alert levels see http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/activity/alertsystem/icons.php.

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program, the California Volcano Observatory aims to advance scientific understanding of volcanic processes and lessen the harmful impacts of volcanic activity in the volcanically active areas of California and Nevada. For additional USGS CalVO volcano information, background, images, and other graphics visit http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/observatories/calvo/. For general information on the USGS Volcano Hazard Program http://volcanoes.usgs.gov. Statewide seismic information for California and Nevada can be found at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqscanv/.







CalVO Alert Archive Search
NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS WEEKLY UPDATE
Friday, April 4, 2014 10:37 AM ChST (Friday, April 4, 2014 00:37 UTC)


Report prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey.

PAGAN VOLCANO (VNUM #284170)
18°7'48" N 145°48' E, Summit Elevation 1870 ft (570 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

Low-level unrest continued at Pagan Volcano throughout the past week. Seismic activity remains above background. A vapor plume was visible in some satellite images during clear views this week. This level of unrest is typical of the past several months. An AVO field crew arrived on the island on April 3 to retrieve campaign instruments deployed last year, and to service other geophysical equipment.

Volcanic gas from Pagan may be noticed downwind of the volcano as distinctive sulfurous odors. Additional information about volcanic gas and vog can be found on the web at this address: http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/hazards/FAQ_SO2-Vog-Ash/main.html

Access to the island may be restricted by the CNMI government. Contact the EMO for the latest information.

No significant activity has been detected in seismic data from Anatahan or Sarigan nor has eruptive activity or significant unrest been detected at other volcanoes in Northern Mariana Islands during the past week.

CONTACT INFORMATION:
USGS Northern Marianas Duty Scientist (808) 967-8815
http://volcano.wr.usgs.gov/cnmistatus.php

CNMI Emergency Management Office (670) 322-8001
http://www.cnmiemo.gov.mp/



NMI Alert Archive Search
YELLOWSTONE VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
Thursday, April 3, 2014 1:57 PM MDT (Thursday, April 3, 2014 19:57 UTC)


YELLOWSTONE VOLCANO (VNUM #325010)
44°25'48" N 110°40'12" W, Summit Elevation 9203 ft (2805 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

Seismicity: Updated April 3 to reflect final earthquake totals from the University of Utah
During March 2014, the University of Utah reports 332 earthquakes were located in the Yellowstone National Park region. This total reflects the completed processing of the March seismicity by the University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS), responsible for the operation and analysis of the Yellowstone Seismic Network. The largest event was a light earthquake of magnitude 4.8 on March 30, at 06:34 AM MDT, located four miles north-northeast of Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (Note: UUSS revised magnitude from 4.7, after further study). The M4.8 main shock was reported felt in Yellowstone National Park, in the towns of Gardiner and West Yellowstone, Montana and throughout the region. This is the largest earthquake at Yellowstone since the early 1980s. Initial source analysis of the M4.8 earthquake suggests a tectonic origin (mostly strike-slip motion).

March 2014 seismicity was dominated by two earthquake clusters in the Norris Geyser Basin region and are described below.

1) A north-south trending series of earthquakes, over seven miles in length, began in September, 2013 and persisted throughout March with 130 events. The largest earthquake (magnitude 3.5) occurred on March 26, at 05:59 PM MDT, located 13 miles south-southwest of Mammoth, WY.

2) The earthquake series containing the March 30 magnitude 4.8 event began on March 27 and continues into April. At the end of March the series consisted of 151 located earthquakes, including the largest earthquake of the month, four magnitude 3 earthquakes, and numerous magnitude 2 and smaller earthquakes.

Earthquake sequences like these are common and account for roughly 50% of the total seismicity in the Yellowstone region.

Yellowstone earthquake activity in March is elevated compared with typical background levels.

Ground deformation
The ground deformation occurring in north-central Yellowstone continues. Since August 1, 2013, the NRWY GPS station has moved about 1.5 cm east, 2 cm north, and 5.5 cm up.

Further south, the caldera subsidence, which began in 2010, has ceased. Since the beginning of 2014, the caldera has been slowly rising at a rate of about 2 cm/yr. All the deformation currently occurring in Yellowstone remains well within historical norms.

The Yellowstone GPS network recorded no deformation associated with the March 30, 2014 M4.8 earthquake. Earthquakes of this size and depth do not typically produce ground displacements large enough to detect with GPS.

Other
The GPS field crew at Yellowstone has traveled around the Park over the past week and has not observed any effects from the earthquake. If any subtle changes have occurred, they are most likely to be found after the snow melts.

YVO's real time temperature data in Norris Geyser Basin indicate no significant changes to the thermal features that are monitored.(http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/yellowstone/yellowstone_monitoring_32.html)

The Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) provides long-term monitoring of volcanic and earthquake activity in the Yellowstone National Park region. Yellowstone is the site of the largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features in the world and the first National Park. YVO is one of the five USGS Volcano Observatories that monitor volcanoes within the United States for science and public safety.

YVO Member agencies: USGS, Yellowstone National Park, University of Utah, University of Wyoming, UNAVCO, Inc., Wyoming State Geological Survey, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, Idaho Geological Survey

CONTACT INFORMATION:
Jacob Lowenstern, Scientist-in-Charge
jlwnstrn@usgs.gov




YVO Alert Archive Search