Current Alerts for U.S. Volcanoes

  • 2015-03-27 08:51:41 Kilauea Watch Orange
  • 2015-03-27 12:11:48 Shishaldin Watch Orange
  • 2015-03-27 12:11:48 Cleveland Advisory Yellow
  • 2015-03-20 09:42:41 Pagan Advisory Yellow
  • 2015-03-27 12:11:48 Semisopochnoi Advisory Yellow
  • 2015-03-27 08:00:56 Cascade Range Normal Green
  • 2015-03-05 06:34:48 Haleakala Normal Green
  • 2015-03-05 06:34:48 Hualalai Normal Green
  • 2015-03-05 06:34:49 Mauna Kea Normal Green
  • 2015-03-05 06:34:49 Mauna Loa Normal Green
  • 2015-02-26 14:44:28 Veniaminof Normal Green
  • 2015-03-02 11:01:33 Yellowstone Normal Green
  • 2015-03-05 06:34:48 Lo`ihi Unassigned Unassigned

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ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY WEEKLY UPDATE
Friday, March 27, 2015 12:11 PM PDT (Friday, March 27, 2015 19:11 UTC)


SHISHALDIN VOLCANO (VNUM #311360)
54°45'19" N 163°58'16" W, Summit Elevation 9373 ft (2857 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

Nothing unusual was observed in mostly cloudy views of the volcano by satellite and web camera this week. During periods of clear weather, a small steam plume was visible in webcam images. Seismicity remains above background levels, indicating that eruptive activity may be occurring at a low level within the summit crater of the volcano.

Shishaldin volcano, located near the center of Unimak Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands, is a spectacular symmetric cone with a base diameter of approximately 16 km (10 mi). A 200-m-wide (660 ft) funnel-shaped summit crater typically emits a steam plume and occasional small amounts of ash. Shishaldin is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian volcanic arc, with at least 54 episodes of unrest including over 24 confirmed eruptions since 1775. Most eruptions are relatively small, although the April-May 1999 event generated an ash column that reached 45,000 ft above sea level.

CLEVELAND VOLCANO (VNUM #311240)
52°49'20" N 169°56'42" W, Summit Elevation 5676 ft (1730 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

Satellite and web camera views have been mostly cloudy over the past week. During periods of clear weather, a small steam plume was visible in webcam images. No significant activity was detected in seismic or infrasound (air pressure) data.

The last explosion at the volcano occurred on November 6, 2014.

Cleveland volcano forms the western portion of Chuginadak Island, a remote and uninhabited island in the east central Aleutians. The volcano is located about 75 km (45 mi) west of the community of Nikolski, and 1500 km (940 mi) southwest of Anchorage. The most recent significant period of eruption began in February, 2001 and produced 3 explosive events that generated ash clouds as high as 39,000 ft above sea level. The 2001 eruption also produced a lava flow and hot avalanche that reached the sea. Since then, Cleveland has been intermittently active producing small lava flows, often followed by explosions that generate small ash clouds generally below 20,000 ft above sea level. These explosions also launch debris onto the slopes of the cone producing hot pyroclastic avalanches and lahars that sometimes reach the coastline.

SEMISOPOCHNOI VOLCANO (VNUM #311060)
51°55'44" N 179°35'52" E, Summit Elevation 2625 ft (800 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

Earthquake activity continues at Semisopochnoi. The current activity began in January, and an increase in its intensity recently prompted AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. The seismic activity is characterized by discrete, fairly small earthquakes that are located beneath the center of the island. In addition, a few periods of seismic tremor have also been observed. These may be associated with the movement of magma or magmatic gases.

Satellite views of the volcano have been mostly blocked by clouds over the past week.

Remote Semisopochnoi volcano occupies the largest, young volcanic island in the western Aleutians. The volcano is dominated by an 8-km (5-mile) diameter caldera that contains a small lake and a number of post-caldera cones and craters. The age of the caldera is not known with certainty but is likely early Holocene. The last known eruption of Semisopochnoi occurred in 1987, probably from Sugarloaf Peak on the south coast of the island, but details are lacking. Another prominent, young post-caldera landform is Mount Cerberus, a three-peaked cone cluster in the southwest part of the caldera. The island is uninhabited and part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. It is located 65 km (40 mi) northeast of Amchitka Island and 200 km (130 mi) west of Adak.

OTHER ALASKA VOLCANOES

Other Alaska volcanoes show no signs of significant unrest: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/activity/

AVO scientists conduct daily checks of earthquake activity at all seismically-monitored volcanoes, examine web camera and satellite images for evidence of airborne ash and elevated surface temperatures, and consult other monitoring data as needed.

For definitions of Aviation Color Codes and Volcano Alert Levels, see: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/color_codes.php

FOR MORE INFORMATION ON ALASKA VOLCANOES: http://www.avo.alaska.edu

SUBSCRIBE TO VOLCANO ALERT MESSAGES by email: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vns/

FOLLOW AVO ON FACEBOOK: https://facebook.com/alaska.avo

FOLLOW AVO ON TWITTER: https://twitter.com/alaska.avo

CONTACT INFORMATION:
John Power, Scientist-in-Charge, USGS
jpower@usgs.gov (907) 786-7497

Jeff Freymueller, Coordinating Scientist, UAFGI
jeff.freymueller@gi.alaska.edu (907) 322-4085

The Alaska Volcano Observatory is a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys.



AVO Alert Archive Search
CASCADES VOLCANO OBSERVATORY WEEKLY UPDATE
Friday, March 27, 2015 8:00 AM PDT (Friday, March 27, 2015 15:00 UTC)


CASCADE RANGE VOLCANOES
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

Activity Update: All volcanoes in the Cascade Range of Oregon and Washington are at normal background levels of seismicity. These include Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Adams in Washington State; and Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, Three Sisters, Newberry, and Crater Lake in Oregon. Additionally, GPS data from most of the major volcanoes, and sparse real-time hydrologic and geochemical monitoring, show no anomalous activity.

Recent Observations: Mount Rainier experienced a short-lived earthquake swarm March 23–24, with most events occurring during a ~30-minute burst on March 23. The Pacific Northwest Seismic Network located twenty of these events, centered mainly beneath the upper south flank at 2–3 km depth. Magnitude of the located events ranged from 1.6 down to negative 0.7. Such swarms occur sporadically at Mount Rainier, but this week’s was the most substantial, by number of earthquakes, since a ~1000-event episode September 20–22, 2009. An analysis published in 2013 suggests that earthquakes of the 2009 swarm were initiated by hydrothermal fluid movement along cracks or small faults, as is likely the case for the March 23–24 swarm.





Mount St. Helens Seismic Information
CVO Alert Archive Search
HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY DAILY UPDATE
U.S. Geological Survey
Friday, March 27, 2015 8:51 AM HST (Friday, March 27, 2015 18:51 UTC)


This report on the status of Kilauea volcanic activity, in addition to maps, photos, and Webcam images (available at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/activity/kilaueastatus.php), was prepared by the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). All times are Hawai`i Standard Time.

KILAUEA VOLCANO (VNUM #332010)
19°25'16" N 155°17'13" W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

Activity Summary:
Three areas of breakouts in the upslope portion of the June 27th flow field in Kīlauea's East Rift Zone continue to be active, all are within 6 km (4 mi) of Puʻu ʻŌʻō. Alert level reduced to WATCH on 03/25/15 owing to decrease in immediate threat during the past several weeks. Kīlauea continues to host a lava lake at its summit.

June 27th Lava Flow Observations: Webcams showed overnight that three areas of breakouts continued to be active in the upslope portion of the June 27th flow field located to the northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō: the northern flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō (Feb. 21 breakout), an area near Puʻu Kahauale’a, and an area 5-6 km (3-4 mi) northeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō. Tuesday's HVO overflight showed that the farthest northeast breakout area was continuing to burn forest.

Puʻu ʻŌʻō Observations: The tiltmeter on the north flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō continues to show no significant tilt. The sulfur dioxide emission rate from all East Rift Zone vents was about 400 tonnes/day when last measured on March 20.

Summit Observations: Tiltmeters at Kīlauea's summit continued to record steady, gentle inflationary tilt, consistent with the inflationary phase of a DI event. The summit lava lake level has been steady since yesterday's report, at about 35-40 m (115-130 ft) below the rim of the Overlook crater. Sulfur dioxide emission rates averaged 4700 - 6300 tonnes/day for the week ending March 24.



Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rate estimation caveat: Starting in 2014, we report the emission rate estimated by a new, more accurate method. The numbers increase by a factor of 2-4 but the actual emission rate has not changed. For more on this reporting change, please read http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/view.php?id=207

Background:
Summit The summit lava lake is within an elliptical crater (unofficially called the Overlook crater), which has dimensions of approximately 160 m (520 ft) by 210 m (690 ft), inset within the eastern portion of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. The lake level has varied from about 25 m to more than 200 m (out of sight) below the floor of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. The Overlook crater has been more-or-less continuously active since it opened during a small explosive event on March 19, 2008. The lake level responds to summit tilt changes with the lake generally receding during deflation and rising during inflation. Since 2013, the lava level has been typically between 30 m (100 ft) and 60 m (200 ft) below the floor of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. Small collapses in the Overlook crater are common, and over time have resulted in a gradual enlargement of the Overlook crater. The ambient SO2 concentrations near the vent vary greatly, but are persistently higher than 10 ppm and frequently exceed 50 ppm (upper limit of detector) during moderate trade winds. The gas plume typically includes a small amount of ash-sized tephra (mostly fresh spatter bits and Pele's hair from the circulating lava lake). The heaviest pieces are deposited onto nearby surfaces while the finer bits can be carried several kilometers before dropping out of the plume.

East Rift Zone vents and flow field The eruption in Kīlauea's middle East Rift Zone started with a fissure eruption on January 3, 1983, and continued with few interruptions at Puʻu ʻŌʻō Cone, or temporarily from vents within a few kilometers to the east or west. An eruption on the northeast flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō on June 27, 2014, sent a lava flow to the northeast, where it eventually intersected and utilized old grounds cracks for part of its length. The flow exited the ground cracks in early September 2014 and approached the outskirts of the town of Pāhoa, where flows have persisted but have not reached critical infrastructure.

Hazard Summary:
East Rift Zone vents and flow field Lava flows from the June 27 breakout have advanced into Pāhoa and may threaten residential areas depending on their level of activity and advance rate. Near-vent areas could erupt or collapse without warning with spatter and/or ash being wafted within the gas plume. In addition, potentially-lethal concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas may be present within 1 km downwind of vent areas. Active lava flows within forested areas can produce methane blasts capable of propelling rocks and other debris into the air. All recently active lava flows are within Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park and adjacent State land managed by the Department of Land and Natural Resources or the Office of Hawaiian Affairs.

Kīlauea Crater Ash and Pele's hair can be carried several kilometers downwind, and potentially-lethal concentrations of sulfur dioxide can be present within 1 km downwind.

Viewing Summary:
East Rift Zone flow field The June 27th lava flow is currently within the Kahaualeʻa Natural Area Reserve, which has been closed by the Hawaii State Department of Natural Land and Resources (DLNR) due to the ongoing volcanic hazards (http://dlnr.hawaii.gov/ecosystems/nars/reserves/hawaii-island/kahaualea/), and the Wao Kele o Puna Forest Reserve, also closed by DLNR and the Office of Hawaiian Affairs (http://dlnr.hawaii.gov/blog/2014/09/12/nr14-113/). According to the Hawaii County Civil Defense website (http://www.hawaiicounty.gov/active-alerts/): "The public is reminded that the flow is not visible and cannot be accessed from any public areas."

Puʻu ʻŌʻō Cone and Kīlauea Crater These areas are within Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park; Park access and viewing information can be found at http://www.nps.gov/havo/planyourvisit/lava2.htm.

Definitions of Terms Used:

CD: Hawai`i County Civil Defense

composite seismic events: is a seismic signal with multiple distinct phases that has been recorded frequently at HVO from the Halema`uma`u Overlook vent area since its explosive opening in March, 2008. For the composite events recorded at Halema`uma`u, we typically see an initial high frequency vibration lasting for a few seconds that have been correlated with rockfalls. This is followed by about 30 seconds of a long-period (LP) oscillation with an approximately 2- to 3-second period. The final phase of the signal is several minutes of a very-long-period (VLP) oscillation with an approximately 25- to 30-second period. The LP signals are interpreted to be from the uppermost portion of the conduit and VLP signals are interpreted to be fluid passing through a deep constriction in the conduit through which lava rises to the pond surface we see in the webcam.

DI tilt event: DI is an abbreviation for 'deflation-inflation' and describes a geophysical event of uncertain volcanic significance. DI events are recorded by tiltmeters at Kilauea summit as an abrupt deflation of up to a few microradians in magnitude lasting several hours (weak DI events) to 2-3 days (strong DI events) followed by an abrupt inflation of approximately equal magnitude. The tilt events are usually accompanied by an increase in summit tremor during the deflation phase. A careful analysis of these events suggests that they may be related to changes in magma supply to a storage reservoir at less than 1 km depth, just east of Halema`uma`u crater. Usually, though not always, these changes propagate through the magma conduit from the summit to the east rift eruption site, as many of the DI events at Kilauea summit are also recorded at a tiltmeter at Pu`u `O`o delayed by several hours. DI events often correlate with lava pulses and/or pauses in the eruption at the Pu`u `O`o/Peace Day vents.

glow: light from an unseen source; indirect light.

Halema`uma`u Overlook vent: has been difficult to describe concisely. The vent is actually a pit, or crater, in the floor of the larger Halema`uma`u Crater which is, in turn, in the floor of the larger Kilauea caldera or crater - a crater within a crater within a crater. It is easiest to describe as a pit inset within the floor of a crater within a caldera. The pit is about 160 m (525 ft) in diameter at the Halema`uma`u Crater floor, is about 50 m in diameter at a depth of 200 m (660 ft) below the Halema`uma`u Crater floor. From November, 2009, to now, a lava pond surface has been visible in this pit.

incandescence: the production of visible light from a hot surface. The term also refers to the light emitted from a hot surface. The color of the light is related to surface temperature. Some surfaces can display dull red incandescence at temperatures as low as 430 degrees Centigrade (806 degrees Fahrenheit). By contrast, molten lava displays bright orange to orange-yellow light from surfaces that are hotter than 900 degrees C (1,650 degrees F).

LPs: - Long Period (LP) events refer to earthquakes that have a lower frequency or tone than typical earthquakes and are usually attributed to the resonance of fluid- and gas-filled conduits, cracks and/or chambers. Because of their association with fluids and gases, LP earthquakes in the vicinity of volcanoes can be useful for monitoring purposes. At other volcanoes LP earthquakes are also known as low-frequency earthquakes, tornillos or B-type earthquakes.

mauka, makai: Hawaiian terms for directions relative to the coast - makai or ma kai (toward the coast) and mauka or ma uka (toward the highlands or away from the coast).

microradian: a measure of angle equivalent to 0.000057 degrees.

pali: Hawaiian term for cliff or precipice.

tephra: all material deposited by fallout from an eruption-related plume, regardless of size.

tonne (t): metric unit equal to 1,000 kilograms, 2,204.6 lbs, or 0.984 English tons.

More definitions with photos can be found at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/images/pglossary/index.php.

Additional Information:
For a definition of volcano alert levels and aviation color codes: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/activity/alertsystem/index.php

Maps, photos, Webcam views, and other information about Kilauea Volcano are available at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo/activity/kilaueastatus.php. A daily update summary is available by phone at (808) 967-8862.

A map with details of earthquakes located within the past two weeks can be found at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/seismic/volcweb/earthquakes/

HVO Contact Information: askHVO@usgs.gov

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.



HVO Alert Archive Search
CALIFORNIA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
U.S. Geological Survey
Monday, March 9, 2015 10:51 AM PDT (Monday, March 9, 2015 17:51 UTC)


Monitored CALIFORNIA VOLCANOES
Current Volcano Alert Level: all NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: all GREEN


Activity Update: All volcanoes monitored by CalVO using telemetered, real-time sensor networks exhibit normal levels of background seismicity and deformation. Volcanoes monitored include Mount Shasta, Medicine Lake Volcano, Clear Lake Volcanic Field, Lassen Volcanic Center, Long Valley Volcanic Region, Coso Volcanic Field, Ubehebe Craters, and Salton Buttes.


Observations for February 1, 2015 (0000h PST) through February 28, 2015 (2359h PST):
Mt Shasta: Five M1 or greater earthquakes were detected, the largest registered M1.37.
Medicine Lake: No earthquakes of M1.0 or greater were detected.
Lassen Volcanic Center: Three earthquakes of M1.0 or greater were detected. The largest registered M1.42.
Clear Lake Volcanic Field: Seven earthquakes of M1.0 were detected. The largest registered was M1.96. [Note: The typical high level of seismicity was observed under the Geysers steam field located at the western margin of CLVF. The largest event was M2.93].
Long Valley Volcanic Region: In Long Valley Caldera, 65 earthquakes of M1.0 or greater were detected. Many of these occurred during a minor swarm located just east of the town of Mammoth Lakes on February 8-9. The largest event registered M2.95. In the Mono Craters region, five earthquakes of M1.0 or greater were detected (M1.77 maximum), and no earthquakes of M1.0 or greater were detected under Mammoth Mountain. [Note: The typical high level of seismicity was observed south of the caldera in the Sierra Nevada range. The largest registered M2.13].
Ubehebe Craters: No earthquakes at or above M1.0 were detected.
Salton Buttes: The typical high level of seismicity was observed in the vicinity of the buttes, with eight earthquakes of M1.0 or greater. The largest registered M1.89.
Coso Volcanic Field: The typical high level of seismicity was observed, with 13 earthquakes M1.0 or greater. The largest registered M2.66.

The U.S. Geological Survey will continue to monitor these volcanoes closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted. For a definition of alert levels see http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/activity/alertsystem/icons.php.

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program, the California Volcano Observatory aims to advance scientific understanding of volcanic processes and lessen the harmful impacts of volcanic activity in the volcanically active areas of California and Nevada. For additional USGS CalVO volcano information, background, images, and other graphics visit http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/observatories/calvo/. For general information on the USGS Volcano Hazard Program http://volcanoes.usgs.gov. Statewide seismic information for California and Nevada can be found at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqscanv/.







CalVO Alert Archive Search
NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS WEEKLY UPDATE
Friday, March 20, 2015 9:42 AM PDT (Friday, March 20, 2015 16:42 UTC)


Report prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey.

PAGAN VOLCANO (VNUM #284170)
18°7'48" N 145°48' E, Summit Elevation 1870 ft (570 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

Seismic, infrasound, and web camera data from Pagan Volcano remain temporarily unavailable. Nothing of significance observed in satellite data over the past week.

Volcanic gas from Pagan may be noticed downwind of the volcano as a distinctive sulfurous odor. Additional information about volcanic gas and vog can be found on the web at this address: http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/hazards/FAQ_SO2-Vog-Ash/main.html

Access to the island may be restricted by the CNMI government. Contact the EMO for the latest information.

OTHER NORTHERN MARIANA ISLAND VOLCANOES
Other Northern Mariana Islands volcanoes show no signs of significant unrest.
USGS conducts daily checks of earthquake activity at Pagan, Sarigan, and Anatahan volcanoes.

For definitions of Aviation Color Codes and Volcano Alert Levels, see: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/activity/alertsystem/index.php

SUBSCRIBE TO VOLCANO ALERT MESSAGES by email: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vns/

CONTACT INFORMATION:
USGS Northern Mariana Duty Scientist (808) 967-8815
http://volcano.wr.usgs.gov/cnmistatus.php

CNMI Homeland Security and Emergency Management Office (670) 664-2216
http://www.cnmihsem.gov.mp/






NMI Alert Archive Search
YELLOWSTONE VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
Monday, March 2, 2015 11:01 AM MST (Monday, March 2, 2015 18:01 UTC)


YELLOWSTONE VOLCANO (VNUM #325010)
44°25'48" N 110°40'12" W, Summit Elevation 9203 ft (2805 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

Seismicity

During February 2015, the University of Utah Seismograph Stations, responsible for the operation and analysis of the Yellowstone Seismic Network, reports 73 earthquakes were located in the Yellowstone National Park (YNP) region. The largest event was a small earthquake of magnitude 2.4 on February 03, at 10:17 PM MST, located about 9 miles north northeast of West Yellowstone, Montana.

No earthquake swarm activity was present during February.

Yellowstone earthquake activity in February returned to low background levels.

Ground deformation

After a fascinating year of ups and downs, deformation in north-central Yellowstone has returned to near background levels.

Likewise, caldera GPS stations record little, if any, slow uplift. An example can be found at:

http://www.unavco.org/instrumentation/networks/status/pbo/data/HVWY (click on Static Plots / Time Series)

The Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) provides long-term monitoring of volcanic and earthquake activity in the Yellowstone National Park region. Yellowstone is the site of the largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features in the world and the first National Park. YVO is one of the five USGS Volcano Observatories that monitor volcanoes within the United States for science and public safety.

YVO Member agencies: USGS, Yellowstone National Park, University of Utah, University of Wyoming, UNAVCO, Inc., Wyoming State Geological Survey, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, Idaho Geological Survey

CONTACT INFORMATION:
Jacob Lowenstern, Scientist-in-Charge
jlwnstrn@usgs.gov






YVO Alert Archive Search