Current Alerts for U.S. Volcanoes

  • 2014-11-22 10:08:31 Kilauea Warning Orange
  • 2014-11-22 11:37:41 Pavlof Watch Orange
  • 2014-11-22 11:37:41 Shishaldin Watch Orange
  • 2014-11-22 11:37:41 Cleveland Advisory Yellow
  • 2014-11-21 07:04:29 Pagan Advisory Yellow
  • 2014-11-21 12:58:38 Cascade Range Normal Green
  • 2014-11-08 15:50:24 Haleakala Normal Green
  • 2014-11-08 15:50:24 Hualalai Normal Green
  • 2014-10-24 12:10:14 Katmai Normal Green
  • 2014-11-08 15:50:24 Mauna Kea Normal Green
  • 2014-11-08 15:50:24 Mauna Loa Normal Green
  • 2014-11-01 10:09:50 Yellowstone Normal Green
  • 2014-11-08 15:50:24 Lo`ihi Unassigned Unassigned

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ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY DAILY UPDATE
Saturday, November 22, 2014 11:37 AM PST (Saturday, November 22, 2014 19:37 UTC)


PAVLOF VOLCANO (VNUM #312030)
55°25'2" N 161°53'37" W, Summit Elevation 8261 ft (2518 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

Seismic activity at Pavlof has decreased somewhat over the past day, but is still above background levels. Weakly elevated surface temperatures, consistent with the cooling lava flow on the volcano's northwest flank, were observed in satellite. The eruption has greatly diminished or paused since explosive activity on November 15.

Pauses of days to weeks are common during eruptive episodes at Pavlof and increased activity could occur with little warning.

SHISHALDIN VOLCANO (VNUM #311360)
54°45'19" N 163°58'16" W, Summit Elevation 9373 ft (2857 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

Seismic activity in the form of intermittent volcanic tremor continues. Overnight, elevated surface temperatures at the summit were detected by satellite, consistent with low-level eruptive activity. The webcam remains obscured by clouds, snow, and rain.

CLEVELAND VOLCANO (VNUM #311240)
52°49'20" N 169°56'42" W, Summit Elevation 5676 ft (1730 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

Satellite and webcam views obscured by clouds over the past day. Seismicity remains low.

OTHER ALASKA VOLCANOES

Other Alaska volcanoes show no signs of significant unrest: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/activity/

AVO scientists conduct daily checks of earthquake activity at all seismically-monitored volcanoes, examine web camera and satellite images for evidence of airborne ash and elevated surface temperatures, and consult other monitoring data as needed.

For definitions of Aviation Color Codes and Volcano Alert Levels, see: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/color_codes.php

FOR MORE INFORMATION ON ALASKA VOLCANOES: http://www.avo.alaska.edu

SUBSCRIBE TO VOLCANO ALERT MESSAGES by email: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vns/

FOLLOW AVO ON FACEBOOK: https://facebook.com/alaska.avo

FOLLOW AVO ON TWITTER: https://twitter.com/alaska.avo

CONTACT INFORMATION:
John Paskievitch, Acting Scientist-in-Charge, USGS
jpaskie@usgs.gov (907) 786-7497

Jeff Freymueller, Coordinating Scientist, UAFGI
jeff.freymueller@gi.alaska.edu (907) 322-4085

The Alaska Volcano Observatory is a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys.



AVO Alert Archive Search
CASCADES VOLCANO OBSERVATORY WEEKLY UPDATE
Friday, November 21, 2014 12:58 PM PST (Friday, November 21, 2014 20:58 UTC)


CASCADE RANGE VOLCANOES
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

Activity Update: All volcanoes in the Cascade Range of Oregon and Washington are at normal levels of background seismicity. These include Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Adams in Washington State; and Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, Three Sisters, Newberry, and Crater Lake in Oregon.

Recent Observations: Seismic activity in the Cascade Range remains at background levels during the past week. Many seismic records show noise generated by wind and rain.





Mount St. Helens Seismic Information
CVO Alert Archive Search
HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY DAILY UPDATE
U.S. Geological Survey
Saturday, November 22, 2014 10:08 AM HST (Saturday, November 22, 2014 20:08 UTC)


This report on the status of Kilauea volcanic activity, in addition to maps, photos, and Webcam images (available at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/activity/kilaueastatus.php), was prepared by the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). All times are Hawai`i Standard Time.

KILAUEA VOLCANO (VNUM #332010)
19°25'16" N 155°17'13" W, Summit Elevation 4091 ft (1247 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: WARNING
Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

Activity Summary: Kīlauea Volcano continues to erupt at its summit and within its East Rift Zone. An overflight this morning by Hawai`i County Civil Defense showed that breakouts remain active around the crack system. The flow from the lowest breakout in the crack system has advanced in the past couple of days, and is moving along the western boundary of the existing June 27th flow; the leading edge is about 6 km (3.7 mi) in a straight line distance upslope of Apa`a St. Kīlauea's summit began a deflationary trend late last night, and is continuing at a lower rate this morning. The level of the summit lava lake at Halemaʻumaʻu Crater lowered only slightly.

June 27th Lava Flow Observations: Yesterday’s overflight was cancelled because of poor weather conditions. Fieldwork by HVO scientists on Thursday and an overflight by Civil Defense on Friday showed that lava flowing in the lowermost part of the ground crack system advanced northeast in the crack system and north along the western boundary of the original June 27th flow. By Thursday, the leading edge advanced about 500 meters (0.3 miles) northeast of the abandoned geothermal well site, and about 1.9 km (1.2 miles) west of Kaohe Homesteads. By Friday morning, this flow had reached a ground crack (the same ground crack which lava partially filled, and flowed out of, around September 6) about 300 meters (0.2 miles) north of the front as mapped on Thursday. There were no signs of active breakouts downslope (north) of this activity. The next HVO overflight is scheduled for Monday, weather permitting.

Puʻu ʻŌʻō Observations: No significant changes were noted near Puʻu ʻŌʻō. Seismic tremor continued with relatively steady amplitude, and webcams revealed no strong variations in the pattern of glow from degassing vents nor the configuration of the crater floor. The tiltmeter at Puʻu ʻŌʻō recorded a slight deflationary trend starting yesterday afternoon, which is continuing this morning. The GPS-measured length across the cone has not changed significantly since July. The most recent measurement of sulfur dioxide emissions from the East Rift Zone was about 250 tonnes per day on November 18, 2014.

Summit Observations: The summit tiltmeter showed deflationary tilt starting late last night, which is continuing at a lower rate this morning. The surface height of the lava lake in the Overlook vent lowered only slightly. Volcanic tremor persisted at fluctuating amplitudes based on spattering activity in the lake. Small amounts of particulate material were carried aloft by the plume. Summit emissions of sulfur dioxide were measured at 4,400 tonnes/day on November 18 (see caveat below).



Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rate estimation caveat: Starting in 2014, we report the emission rate estimated by a new, more accurate method. The numbers increase by a factor of 2-4 but the actual emission rate has not changed. For more on this reporting change, please read http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/view.php?id=207

Background:
Summit The summit lava lake is within an elliptical crater (unofficially called the Overlook crater), which has dimensions of approximately 160 m (520 ft) by 210 m (690 ft), inset within the eastern portion of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. The lake level has varied from about 25 m to more than 200 m (out of sight) below the floor of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. The Overlook crater has been more-or-less continuously active since it opened during a small explosive event on March 19, 2008. The lake level responds to summit tilt changes with the lake generally receding during deflation and rising during inflation. Since 2013, the lava level has been typically between 30 m (100 ft) and 60 m (200 ft) below the floor of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. Small collapses in the Overlook crater are common, and over time have resulted in a gradual enlargement of the Overlook crater. The ambient SO2 concentrations near the vent vary greatly, but are persistently higher than 10 ppm and frequently exceed 50 ppm (upper limit of detector) during moderate trade winds. The gas plume typically includes a small amount of ash-sized tephra (mostly fresh spatter bits and Pele's hair from the circulating lava lake). The heaviest pieces are deposited onto nearby surfaces while the finer bits can be carried several kilometers before dropping out of the plume.

East Rift Zone vents and flow field The eruption in Kīlauea's middle East Rift Zone started with a fissure eruption on January 3, 1983, and continued with few interruptions at Puʻu ʻŌʻō Cone, or temporarily from vents within a few kilometers to the east or west. A fissure eruption on the upper east flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō Cone on Sept. 21, 2011, drained the lava lakes and fed a lava flow (Peace Day flow) that advanced southeast through the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision to the ocean within Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park in early December 2011. The flows stalled and re-entered the ocean starting on November 24, 2012, until activity started to decline and the ocean entry ceased in August 20, 2013; the flow was dead by early November, 2013. The Kahaualeʻa flow, which started from the spatter cone/lava lake at the northeast edge of the Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater floor in mid-January 2013 was dead by late April, but a new flow (informally called Kahaualeʻa 2) became active in the same area in early May 2013, waxing with inflation and waning with deflation. The Kahaualeʻa 2 flow died following the onset of a new breakout from the northeast flank of Puʻu ʻŌʻō on June 27, 2014. The June 27th flow advanced to the northeast, confined to old grounds cracks for part of its length, and has been slowly approaching the town of Pāhoa.

Hazard Summary:
East Rift Zone vents and flow field Lava flows from the June 27 breakout have advanced into Pāhoa and may threaten residential areas depending on their level of activity and advance rate. Near-vent areas could erupt or collapse without warning with spatter and/or ash being wafted within the gas plume. In addition, potentially-lethal concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas may be present within 1 km downwind of vent areas. Active lava flows within forested areas can produce methane blasts capable of propelling rocks and other debris into the air. All recently active lava flows are within Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park and adjacent State land managed by the Department of Land and Natural Resources or the Office of Hawaiian Affairs.

Kīlauea Crater Ash and Pele's hair can be carried several kilometers downwind, and potentially-lethal concentrations of sulfur dioxide can be present within 1 km downwind.

Viewing Summary:
East Rift Zone flow field The June 27th lava flow is currently within the Kahaualeʻa Natural Area Reserve, which has been closed by the Hawaii State Department of Natural Land and Resources (DLNR) due to the ongoing volcanic hazards (http://dlnr.hawaii.gov/ecosystems/nars/reserves/hawaii-island/kahaualea/), and the Wao Kele o Puna Forest Reserve, also closed by DLNR and the Office of Hawaiian Affairs (http://dlnr.hawaii.gov/blog/2014/09/12/nr14-113/). According to the Hawaii County Civil Defense website (http://www.hawaiicounty.gov/active-alerts/): "The public is reminded that the flow is not visible and cannot be accessed from any public areas."

Puʻu ʻŌʻō Cone and Kīlauea Crater These areas are within Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park; Park access and viewing information can be found at http://www.nps.gov/havo/planyourvisit/lava2.htm.

Definitions of Terms Used:

ash: tephra less than 2 mm (5/64 inches) in size.

CD: Hawai`i County Civil Defense

composite seismic events: is a seismic signal with multiple distinct phases that has been recorded frequently at HVO from the Halema`uma`u Overlook vent area since its explosive opening in March, 2008. For the composite events recorded at Halema`uma`u, we typically see an initial high frequency vibration lasting for a few seconds that have been correlated with rockfalls. This is followed by about 30 seconds of a long-period (LP) oscillation with an approximately 2- to 3-second period. The final phase of the signal is several minutes of a very-long-period (VLP) oscillation with an approximately 25- to 30-second period. The LP signals are interpreted to be from the uppermost portion of the conduit and VLP signals are interpreted to be fluid passing through a deep constriction in the conduit through which lava rises to the pond surface we see in the webcam.

DI tilt event: DI is an abbreviation for 'deflation-inflation' and describes a geophysical event of uncertain volcanic significance. DI events are recorded by tiltmeters at Kilauea summit as an abrupt deflation of up to a few microradians in magnitude lasting several hours (weak DI events) to 2-3 days (strong DI events) followed by an abrupt inflation of approximately equal magnitude. The tilt events are usually accompanied by an increase in summit tremor during the deflation phase. A careful analysis of these events suggests that they may be related to changes in magma supply to a storage reservoir at less than 1 km depth, just east of Halema`uma`u crater. Usually, though not always, these changes propagate through the magma conduit from the summit to the east rift eruption site, as many of the DI events at Kilauea summit are also recorded at a tiltmeter at Pu`u `O`o delayed by several hours. DI events often correlate with lava pulses and/or pauses in the eruption at the Pu`u `O`o/Peace Day vents.

glow: light from an unseen source; indirect light.

Halema`uma`u Overlook vent: has been difficult to describe concisely. The vent is actually a pit, or crater, in the floor of the larger Halema`uma`u Crater which is, in turn, in the floor of the larger Kilauea caldera or crater - a crater within a crater within a crater. It is easiest to describe as a pit inset within the floor of a crater within a caldera. The pit is about 160 m (525 ft) in diameter at the Halema`uma`u Crater floor, is about 50 m in diameter at a depth of 200 m (660 ft) below the Halema`uma`u Crater floor. From November, 2009, to now, a lava pond surface has been visible in this pit.

incandescence: the production of visible light from a hot surface. The term also refers to the light emitted from a hot surface. The color of the light is related to surface temperature. Some surfaces can display dull red incandescence at temperatures as low as 430 degrees Centigrade (806 degrees Fahrenheit). By contrast, molten lava displays bright orange to orange-yellow light from surfaces that are hotter than 900 degrees C (1,650 degrees F).

LPs: - Long Period (LP) events refer to earthquakes that have a lower frequency or tone than typical earthquakes and are usually attributed to the resonance of fluid- and gas-filled conduits, cracks and/or chambers. Because of their association with fluids and gases, LP earthquakes in the vicinity of volcanoes can be useful for monitoring purposes. At other volcanoes LP earthquakes are also known as low-frequency earthquakes, tornillos or B-type earthquakes.

mauka, makai: Hawaiian terms for directions relative to the coast - makai or ma kai (toward the coast) and mauka or ma uka (toward the highlands or away from the coast).

microradian: a measure of angle equivalent to 0.000057 degrees.

pali: Hawaiian term for cliff or precipice.

rise/fall events: one of the episodic behaviors exhibited by the summit lava lake starting in 2009. An event starts with a rise in lava level, a decrease in high-frequency summit tremor amplitude, a decrease or total stoppage of spattering, and a small decrease in tilt. After a period of minutes to hours, the lava will abruptly drain back to its previous level amidst resumed vigorous spattering, seismic tremor amplitude will increase for a short time (a seismic tremor burst) before resuming background levels, and summit tilt will return to its previous level. Gas emissions decrease significantly during the high lava stand (the plume gets wispy), and resume during its draining phase. Taken together, the geophysical characteristics suggest that, during the high lava stand, lava is puffed up with gas trapped under the lava lake crust.

seismic tremor dropout: these behaviors are identical to rise/fall events except that the lava lake level doesn't rise or fall significantly. High-frequency seismic tremor, gas emissions, and spattering decrease abruptly during a dropout. A dropout can end with a burst of seismic tremor and a significant pulse of gas emissions.

tephra: all material deposited by fallout from an eruption-related plume, regardless of size.

tonne (t): metric unit equal to 1,000 kilograms, 2,204.6 lbs, or 0.984 English tons.

More definitions with photos can be found at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/images/pglossary/index.php.

Additional Information:
For a definition of volcano alert levels and aviation color codes: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/activity/alertsystem/index.php

Maps, photos, Webcam views, and other information about Kilauea Volcano are available at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo/activity/kilaueastatus.php. A daily update summary is available by phone at (808) 967-8862.

A map with details of earthquakes located within the past two weeks can be found at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/seismic/volcweb/earthquakes/

HVO Contact Information: askHVO@usgs.gov

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is one of five volcano observatories within the U.S. Geological Survey and is responsible for monitoring volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawai`i.



HVO Alert Archive Search
CALIFORNIA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
U.S. Geological Survey
Monday, November 10, 2014 3:30 PM PST (Monday, November 10, 2014 23:30 UTC)


Monitored CALIFORNIA VOLCANOES
Current Volcano Alert Level: all NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: all GREEN


Activity Update: All volcanoes monitored by CalVO using telemetered, real-time sensor networks exhibit normal levels of background seismicity and deformation. Volcanoes monitored include Mount Shasta, Medicine Lake Volcano, Clear Lake Volcanic Field, Lassen Volcanic Center, Long Valley Volcanic Region, Coso Volcanic Field, Ubehebe Craters, and Salton Buttes.


Observations for October 1, 2014 (0000h PDST) through October 31, 2014 (2359h PDST):
Mt Shasta:: No earthquakes of M1.0 or greater were detected.
Medicine Lake: No earthquakes of M1.0 or greater were detected.
Lassen Volcanic Center: A modest swarm of low-magnitude earthquakes occurred about 25 miles NW of the town of Chester on October 3-12. There were close to 10 earthquakes of M1.0 or greater, with the largest registering M2.1.
Clear Lake Volcanic Field: Two earthquakes above magnitude 1.0 were detected (M1.32 and M1.77) [Note: Typical high level of seismicity was observed under the Geysers steam field located at the western margin of CLVF. The largest event was M=3.59].
Long Valley Volcanic Region: The robust swarm of earthquakes in Long Valley caldera that occurred at the end of last month died off in early October, declining from over 300 earthquakes at the peak of the swarm (September 26; M1.0 or greater) to less than 10 earthquakes per day by October 4. In total, 50 earthquakes of M1.0 and greater were detected within the caldera in October, with the largest registering M2.83. Only one magnitude M1.22 earthquake was detected along the Mono-Inyo chain and no earthquakes at or above M1.0 were detected under Mammoth Mountain. [Note: A persistent earthquake swarm occurred throughout the month of October in the Sierra Nevada Range south of Long Valley caldera in the vicinity of Mount Huntington. More than 100 earthquakes were recorded, the largest of which was M3.6.]
Ubehebe Craters: No earthquakes at or above M1.0 were detected.
Salton Buttes: The typical high level of seismicity was observed in the vicinity of the buttes, with 10 earthquakes of M1.0 or greater. The largest registered M2.22.
Coso Volcanic Field: The typical high level of seismicity was observed, with 15 earthquakes M1.0 or greater. The largest registered M2.39.

The U.S. Geological Survey will continue to monitor these volcanoes closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted. For a definition of alert levels see http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/activity/alertsystem/icons.php.

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program, the California Volcano Observatory aims to advance scientific understanding of volcanic processes and lessen the harmful impacts of volcanic activity in the volcanically active areas of California and Nevada. For additional USGS CalVO volcano information, background, images, and other graphics visit http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/observatories/calvo/. For general information on the USGS Volcano Hazard Program http://volcanoes.usgs.gov. Statewide seismic information for California and Nevada can be found at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqscanv/.







CalVO Alert Archive Search
NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS WEEKLY UPDATE
Friday, November 21, 2014 7:04 AM PST (Friday, November 21, 2014 15:04 UTC)


Report prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey.

PAGAN VOLCANO (VNUM #284170)
18°7'48" N 145°48' E, Summit Elevation 1870 ft (570 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY
Current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

Seismic, infrasound, and web camera data from Pagan Volcano remain temporarily unavailable. A typical steam and gas plume was observed in some satellite images over the past week.

Volcanic gas from Pagan may be noticed downwind of the volcano as a distinctive sulfurous odor. Additional information about volcanic gas and vog can be found on the web at this address: http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/hazards/FAQ_SO2-Vog-Ash/main.html

Access to the island may be restricted by the CNMI government. Contact the EMO for the latest information.


OTHER NORTHERN MARIANA ISLAND VOLCANOES

Other Northern Mariana Island volcanoes volcanoes show no signs of significant unrest.
USGS conduct daily checks of earthquake activity at Pagan, Sarigan, and Anatahan volcanoes.

For definitions of Aviation Color Codes and Volcano Alert Levels, see: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/activity/alertsystem/index.php

SUBSCRIBE TO VOLCANO ALERT MESSAGES by email: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vns/

CONTACT INFORMATION:
USGS Northern Mariana Duty Scientist (808) 967-8815
http://volcano.wr.usgs.gov/cnmistatus.php

CNMI Homeland Security and Emergency Management Office (670) 664-2216
http://www.cnmihsem.gov.mp/






NMI Alert Archive Search
YELLOWSTONE VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE
Saturday, November 1, 2014 10:09 AM MDT (Saturday, November 1, 2014 16:09 UTC)


YELLOWSTONE VOLCANO (VNUM #325010)
44°25'48" N 110°40'12" W, Summit Elevation 9203 ft (2805 m)
Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL
Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

Seismicity

During October 2014, the University of Utah Seismograph Stations, responsible for the operation and analysis of the Yellowstone Seismic Network, reports 98 earthquakes were located in the Yellowstone National Park (YNP) region. The largest event was a small earthquake of magnitude 2.7 on October 29, at 3:55 PM MDT, located about 17.5 km (11 miles) south-southwest of West Thumb, YNP. This earthquake is part of a small swarm of 15 earthquakes that occurred over six hours.

Yellowstone earthquake activity in October is at low background levels.

Ground deformation

Deformation in north-central Yellowstone continues. The rate of subsidence at the NRWY GPS station is holding steady at about 5 cm/yr. The present position of NRWY is equivalent to where it was when the current period of deformation began in late summer 2013.

Caldera GPS stations continue to record the pattern of uplift that has persisted since the beginning of 2014. An example can be found at:

http://www.unavco.org/instrumentation/networks/status/pbo/data/HVWY (click on Static Plots / Time Series)

The Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) provides long-term monitoring of volcanic and earthquake activity in the Yellowstone National Park region. Yellowstone is the site of the largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features in the world and the first National Park. YVO is one of the five USGS Volcano Observatories that monitor volcanoes within the United States for science and public safety.

YVO Member agencies: USGS, Yellowstone National Park, University of Utah, University of Wyoming, UNAVCO, Inc., Wyoming State Geological Survey, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, Idaho Geological Survey

CONTACT INFORMATION:
Jacob Lowenstern, Scientist-in-Charge
jlwnstrn@usgs.gov






YVO Alert Archive Search