USGS Volcano Hazards Program Volcano Update

HVO update page and observatory web site

Activity Summary: Eruption continues with no significant changes. Summit instruments recorded the completion of the last DI event and the start of another DI deflation. The lava lake level more-or-less followed the tilt. At the middle east rift zone, the Kahauale`a 2 lava flow was active as multiple breakouts burning small patches of forest north of Pu`u `O`o. Southeast of Pu`u `O`o, scattered active breakouts were seen on the pali and coastal plain with a small patch of breakouts just inland of the former ocean entry; lava is no longer entering the ocean. Gas emissions remained elevated.

Recent Observations at Kilauea summit: Summit tiltmeters recorded the the switch to DI inflation yesterday morning and the start of another minor DI deflation at 1 am this morning. The lava lake level followed the tilt although, after rising through yesterday, it started to drop about 10 pm last night, hours before the tilt started recording the DI deflation. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 600 t/d on August 28, 2013 - a higher value representing a period in which spattering activity and gas release from the lava lake were active; however, this value is a minimum because the data were acquired close to the vent where the plume is most dense and challenging to fully characterize. A small amount of ash-sized tephra (mostly fresh spatter bits and Pele's hair) was carried out of the vent with the gas and deposited onto nearby surfaces.

Seismic tremor levels fluctuated and remained low with several dropouts between 10 am and 6 pm yesterday. Seven earthquakes were strong enough to be located beneath Kilauea Volcano in the past 24 hours: 1 within the lower southwest rift zone, 2 beneath the summit caldera, 1 north of the bend in the east rift zone, and 3 on south flank faults. GPS receivers on opposite sides of the summit caldera recorded changes that mimicked the significant short-term deviations in summit tilt (extension while summit tiltmeters record inflationary tilt and contraction during deflationary tilt) with no longer-term trend.

Background: The summit lava lake is within a cylindrical vent cavity with a diameter of ~160 m (520 ft) and nearly vertical sides inset within the east wall and floor of Halema`uma`u Crater. Its level has varied from about 25 m to more than 200 m (out of sight) below the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater. The vent has been mostly active since opening with a small explosive event on March 19, 2008. The surface level of the lava lake has remained mostly below the inner ledge (~31 m or 100 ft below the floor of Halema`uma`u Crater on October 29, 2012) and has risen above and flooded the ledge in October 2012 and January 2013 before receding to greater depths. The lake level responds to summit tilt changes with the lake generally receding during deflation and rising during inflation.

Recent Observations at the middle east rift zone vents: The tiltmeter at Pu`u `O`o cone recorded fluctuations over very weak deflation, some of the fluctuations seem to be following summit tilt variations but are so small that it is difficult to be sure. The most recent (preliminary) sulfur dioxide emission rate measurement was 300 tonnes/day on August 16, 2013, from all east rift zone sources; these values have ranged between 150 and 450 t/d in 2013 and are made at a greater distance from the sources where the plume is more easily characterized. GPS receivers recorded fluctuations but no longer-term trend. The Pu`u `O`o vent fed two lava flows - most of the erupted lava appears to feed the Kahauale`a 2 flow to the north at the expense of the older, but waning, Peace Day flow to the southeast.

Spatter cones on the north and south portion of the crater floor of Pu`u `O`o showed continued incandescence while the northeast spatter cone continued to feed the Kahauale`a 2 lava flow. Similar to the past few days, PNcam views showed scattered active breakouts on the Kahauale`a 2 flow and burning along the forest line north of Pu`u `O`o.

Southeast of Pu`u `O`o, active breakouts from the Peace Day flow occurred in three locations: at the base of the pali, a string mid-coastal plain, and a small patch of activity inland from the former Kupapa`u ocean entry just east of the National Park boundary; weak puffs of steam were recorded by the R2cam this morning around 6:30 am indicating a possible, but brief, reactivation of the main Peace Day lava tube, a brief dribble of lava into the ocean from the most makai patch of breakouts, or the collapse of a portion of the still-hot bench into the ocean. The lack of a plume at all other times over the past day suggests that the entry may no longer be active.

HAZARD ALERT: Lava entering the ocean builds lava deltas. The lava delta and adjacent areas are some of the most hazardous areas on the flow field. Frequent delta/bench collapses give little warning, can produce explosions capable of throwing both dense and molten rocks hundreds of meters (yards) in all directions (inland as well as out to sea), and can produce damaging local waves. The steam plume produced by lava entering the ocean contains fine lava fragments and an assortment of acid droplets that can be harmful to your health. The rapidly changing conditions near the ocean entry have been responsible for many injuries and a few deaths.

Background: The eruption in Kilauea's middle east rift zone started with a fissure eruption on January 3, 1983, and continued with few interruptions at Pu`u `O`o Cone, or temporarily from vents within a few kilometers to the east or west. A fissure eruption on the upper east flank of Pu`u `O`o Cone on Sept. 21, 2011, drained the lava lakes and fed a lava flow (Peace Day flow) that advanced southeast through the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision to the ocean within Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park in early December 2011. Since late December 2011, the flows have remained intermittently active on the pali and the coastal plain and finally re-entered the ocean starting on November 24, 2012. The Kahauale`a flow, which started from the spatter cone/lava lake at the northeast edge of the Pu`u `O`o crater floor in mid-January, 2013, was dead by late April, but a new flow (Kahauale`a 2) became active in the same general area in early May. In general, activity waxes with inflation and wanes with deflation.

Hazard Summary: East rift vents and flow field - near-vent areas could erupt or collapse without warning with spatter and/or ash being wafted within the gas plume; potentially-lethal concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas may be present within 1 km downwind of vent areas. All recently active lava flows are within Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park, adjacent State land managed by the Department of Land and Natural Resources, and private property; the lava flows do not pose a hazard to any structures not already within the County-declared mandatory evacuation zone. Lava deltas, which can collapse into the ocean without warning, are extremely hazardous and should be avoided (see HAZARD ALERT above). Kilauea Crater - ash and Pele's hair can be carried several kilometers downwind; potentially-lethal concentrations of sulfur dioxide can be present within 1 km downwind.

Viewing Summary: East rift zone flow field - Most of the flow field is within the closed-access Kahauale'a Natural Area Reserve (NAR) and the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision and can only be viewed from the air. A small part of the western flow field near the coast in within Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (see below for access info). Under favorable weather conditions, active flows-when present-can be seen from the County Viewing Area at Kalapana (Lava hotline 961-8093). Pu`u `O`o Cone and Kilauea Crater - these areas are within Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park; Park access and viewing information can be found at

Update in Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) format